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Code Table List


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Management Practice Codes

 CodeDescription
 EDIT GENERAL 
 EDIT Education; correct species misconceptions 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate take: amt/method/season/age/sex 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate take: SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate by mgt units 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; control access/transport methods 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; establish wildlife refuges 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; transplant to available habitat 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; introduce/establish/stock non-native wildlife 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; introduce/establish/stock non-native fish 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; restrict disturbance of species 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; restrict disturbance of habitat 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; relocate problem individuals 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; sheet metal fence 18" high 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; supplement feeding (e.g. winter) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to visual repellant (scarecrow) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to taste repellant 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to noise repellant (zon-guns) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; artificial nest structures 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; artificial leks/display grounds 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; create artificial H20 source 
 EDIT Sensitive to; feral dogs 
 EDIT Sensitive to; feral domestic cats 
 EDIT Sensitive to; noise disturbance 
 EDIT Sensitive to: ORV/Snowmobiles 
 EDIT Sensitive to; heavy equipmt noise/activity 
 EDIT Sensitive to; human presence/activity 
 EDIT Sensitive to; human foot traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; horse traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; bicycle traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; highway traffic (hi-speed/continuous) 
 EDIT Sensitive to; road traffic (slow/vehicles stop often) 
 EDIT Sensitive to; soil pH 
 EDIT Habitat; undisturbed/undeveloped areas 
 EDIT Habitat; terrestrial snags 
 EDIT Habitat; aquatic snags/roots/logs 
 EDIT Habitat; coarse woody debris (down logs) 
 EDIT Habitat; brush/debris pilesNatural or manmade piles of brush or slash, and piles of debrisûpiled along rivers, streams, and arroyos by high water.
 EDIT Habitat; rock piles 
 EDIT Habitat; talus slopes 
 EDIT Habitat; malpais-lava flows 
 EDIT Habitat; cliffs 
 EDIT Habitat; caves & abandoned mines 
 EDIT Habitat; islands 
 EDIT Habitat; mineral licks 
 EDIT Habitat; Underground burrow / den 
 EDIT Habitat; mast producing trees (oak/juniper) 
 EDIT Habitat; large trees - den/nest/roost 
 EDIT Habitat; small forest openings 
 EDIT Habitat; special hab. features: SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; wilderness; no roads/machines 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; recreational dev.; camp/picnic areas 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; urban green belts 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; movement corridors 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; woodlots 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; garbage dumps/landfills 
 EDIT Roads; general 
 EDIT Roads; increase habitat access/hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Roads; restrict access (locked gates vs open road) 
 EDIT Roads; numerous roadkills; highways/mine roads, etc. 
 EDIT Roads; paved and unpaved, disturbance 
 EDIT Roads; unpaved, sedimentation 
 EDIT Trails; general 
 EDIT Underpasses/Overpasses for wildlife 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; increase habitat access 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; herbicides; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; fragment habitat 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; habitat change (e.g. forest to shrub) 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; mow agric. fields, etc. 
 EDIT Lower water table; mine de-watering/irrigate/etc. 
 EDIT Drain wetlands; SEE AQUATIC MGT 
 EDIT Wind/snow breaks/hedgerows; with trees/shrubs 
 EDIT Fences; general 
 EDIT Fences; barbed wire 
 EDIT Fences; woven wire 
 EDIT Fences; SEE COMMENTS FOR SPECIFICATIONS 
 EDIT Explosions; underground vibrations 
 EDIT Explosions; surface noise 
 EDIT Explosions; underwater 
 EDIT Oil spills; terrestrial 
 EDIT Oil spills; into aquatic system 
 EDIT Dust; heavy dust (roads/mining/construct) 
 EDIT Industrial Developmt; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Ecosystem; killing prairie dogsThis species alters the environment and creates habitat used byûor important to other species. This is considered a "keystoneûspecies".
 EDIT Ecosystem; killing beaverThis species alters the environment and creates habitat used byûor important to other species. This is considered a "keystoneûspecies".
 EDIT Taxa may be detrimental to ecosystem where non-nativeThese taxa (most are not native to the Southwest) may causeûadverse impacts to native flora, fauna and ecosystems inûlocalities where they are non-native.
 EDIT VEGETATION 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; early 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; middle 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; late (non-forest) 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; oldgrowth forest 
 EDIT Veg diversity; ecotones, edge 
 EDIT Veg diversity; lack of edge/lg. patch size 
 EDIT Veg diversity; high vertical diversity 
 EDIT Veg diversity; low vertical diversity 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; fire exclusion 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; Fire, prescribed & natural burns 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; Fire, intense stand replacing 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; chaining 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; fertilize 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; revegetate disturbed areas 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; restore riparian with willow/cottonwd 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; food plots for wildlife 
 EDIT Forestry; even-age management 
 EDIT Forestry; uneven-age management 
 EDIT Forestry; reforestation 
 EDIT Forestry; timber stand improvement: thinning 
 EDIT Forestry; slash/log/debris disposal 
 EDIT Forestry; Mistletoe 
 EDIT Logging; general 
 EDIT Logging; disturbance/activity 
 EDIT Logging; roads; SEE GEN MGT 
 EDIT Logging; cut/deforest'n (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; clearcuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; seed tree cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; selection cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; shelterwood cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; slash (vs no slash) 
 EDIT AQUATIC / WETLAND / RIPARIAN 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; montane cold water streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; montane beaver ponds 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; tarns (cirque basin lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; stock ponds, warm water 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; lowland/warm H2O-streams/rivers 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; warm springs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; cold springs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; man-made reservoirs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; wetlands (bogs - lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; forested wetlands 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; playas 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; marshes (emergent veg) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; bogs (wet spongy ground) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; mud-flats 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; islands in perm. water 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; pools in streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; riffles in streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; mixed pools/riffles 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; submerged logs/brush/snags 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; eutrophic waters 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; oligotrophic waters 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to DO (dissolved O2) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to turbidity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to sedimentation 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to pH 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to conductivity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to salinity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to Total Dissolved Solids TDS 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to H20 temp 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to contaminants 
 EDIT Hydrology; sensitive to hydrograph patterns (flow levels) 
 EDIT Hydrology; sensitive to water levels on reservoirs/lakes 
 EDIT Aquatic Veg; minimize aquatic plants 
 EDIT Aquatic Veg; establish aquatic plants 
 EDIT Riparian Veg; reduce shade over water 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; drain wetlands (bogs - lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; burn wetlands/maintain successional stages 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; artificial islands or rafts in H2O 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; protect stream/ditch bank: gabions/rock/rip-rap 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; vegetate stream/ditch bank 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; maintain beaver pop (ponds/H20 chemistry/temperature)May include construction of beaver dam analogs that may ultimately draw beavers back into a treated stream reach. Also includes water temperature effects of beaver dam complexes.
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; dams in large rivers 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; river structures: piers/piles/bouys/wing dams 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; dredging 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; deposition of fill in H2O 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; underwater mining 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; channelization 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; line channels/ditches 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; waste-water treatment; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; create artificial stream meanders 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; develop fishways at dams 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; install "Bubblers" 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; bridges (vs fords or culverts) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; open bottom culvert (vs round culvert pipe) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; hard bottom ford (vs mud bottom) 
 EDIT AGRICULTURE 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; general 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; controlled (vs un-controlled) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; light/moderate (vs no grazing) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; heavy (vs no grazing) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; in riparian zones 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; specific areas/seasons; SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/poor 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./poor 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/poor 
 EDIT Farming; general (crops planted/harvested) 
 EDIT Clean Farming; no weeds, shrubs, etc. 
 EDIT Agriculture: economic importanceThis species is considered of economic importance to agriculture. May affect farm crops or range conditions for livestock.
 EDIT Retain crop residue (over-winter) 
 EDIT Water Tanks; dirt stock tanks 
 EDIT Water Tanks; vert. sided/open top (steel/concrete) 
 EDIT Irrigation; general 
 EDIT Irrigation; de-watering streams 
 EDIT Irrigation; lower water table; groundwater pumping 
 EDIT Irrigation; change soil/ground H20 salinity 
 EDIT Plowing; tilling land 
 EDIT Plowing; during nesting season 
 EDIT Praire dog control/destruction 
 EDIT ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL (ADC) Chemical 
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (meat bait): HISTORICAL 
 EDIT ADC: Alpha-chloralose (bird toxicant/capture) 
 EDIT ADC: Avitrol (grain bait)The avian frightening agent Avitrol (4-aminopyridine) is used to deter birds from specific crops and areas. It is used primarily to control flocking blackbirds and starlings but it may also be used to control gulls, pigeons, sparrows and crows. Avitrol is applied as a mixture of treated and untreated grain. The birds that eat treated grain usually die, but in the process they emit distress calls and fly erratically. Avitrol is also used to repel gulls from garbage dumps and airports (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: DRC-1339 (grain bait)DRC-1339 [C7H9NCl2; CAS #7745-89-3] is an avicide which is "very highly toxic" to birds, "moderately toxic" to aquatic organisms and "slightly toxic" to mammals. Most avian species are adversely affected at low levels, hawks may be an exception. DRC-1339 is slow acting, lethal in a single feeding. Poisoned birds die in 3 hours to 3 days. It is most toxic to starlings, blackbirds, crows, jays and magpies (LD50 1-10 ppm). Doves, pigeons, quail, chickens, ducks and geese are slightly less sensitive (LD50 11-100 ppm). Target species include: starlings, blackbirds, pigeons, grackles, gulls, magpies, crows and ravens. Chronic toxicity is cumulative in birds. Chronic problems include egg breakage, infertile eggs, and decreased egg and live chick production. Chronic carcinogenic bioassays using rats indicated incidences of uterine tumors, but are "not convincing evidence for carcinogenicity". ADC states there is little potential for secondary poisoning hazards although crows have died after consuming pigeons killed with the much weaker commercial form (0.1% DRC-1339). In FY 1988 ADC reported killing 3,687,583 blackbirds in nine states and 1,012,242 starlings. The concentrate used by ADC personnel is 98% active ingredient while the much weaker commercially available form is 0.1% active ingredient. DRC-1339 is mixed with grain, bread, french fries, egg, or meat depending on target species. Bait carriers such as poultry pellets, dog food, and brown rice can be used. Grain baits are typically used at cattle, swine and poultry feed-lots (apparently includes dairies); staging areas (= areas within 1 mile of roost sites, such as open fields, pastures, or orchards, where large numbers of "blackbirds" congregate ...); and around structures (includes urban areas). DRC-1339 is used in bread cubes to kill gulls in coastal areas where it is hand placed in nests. Egg/meat baits are typically used relative to livestock operations to target ravens, crows and magpies. BISON-M coding reflects the type of bait used: Grain bait MGT = 4520; Egg/Meat bait MGT = 4525. DRC-1339 is highly soluble in water and has a half life in anaerobic soils of less than 2 days. It is rapidly metabolized in animals and apparently does not bio-accumulate. Death in birds is caused by uremic poisoning and congestion of major organs. Birds typically die away from poisoning sight. Toxic effects in mammals include central nervous system depression and muscular weakness. DRC-1339 is acutely and chronically toxic to a variety of mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Results of risk assessment suggest that potential hazards exist for any bird consuming DRC-1339 treated grain bait. Highest risk is to granivorous birds. Other non-target species that may be affected include squirrels and rabbits. Any egg-eating or carrion-eating animals occurring in areas where the bait is applied could be affected by consumption of DRC-1339 egg and meat bait. Because DRC-1339 is slow acting birds die away from the poisoning site; many more birds may be affected and not found. Possible Mitigation: Prebaiting, uneaten bait removal, removal of carcasses, not using when non-target species are present, seasonal restrictions, restricting use within range of certain species, observing bait continuously, and elevating bait. The FEIS (1994) recommends use of DRC-1339 GRAIN BAIT in staging areas be restricted within the range of the federally listed whooping cranes and Attwater's greater prairie chicken. Label DRC-1339 98% CONCENTRATE: For use only by USDA personnel trained in bird control or persons under their direct supervision. Hazards to humans: harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin. Environmental hazards: ... toxic to birds. Do not expose in areas accessible to waterfowl, poultry and other non-target birds. Keep out of lakes, ponds, streams. Do not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Endangered species considerations: Before undertaking any control operations with this product, consult with local, State, and Federal wildlife authorities to ensure the use of this product presents no hazard to any endangered species. USE RESTRICTIONS: DO NOT apply bait(s) in areas where there is danger of consumption by endangered species. When baiting is completed, remove all unconsumed bait ... Carcasses of dead or dying birds that are found should be collected and either burned or buried according to applicable laws. When controlling blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles it may be necessary to obtain a kill-permit from the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and/or the applicable state wildlife agency. Disposal: Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spilled bait, or rinsate is a violation of Federal law. Maximum Application Frequency: GRAIN 98% CONCENTRATE: Feedlots: once/year/site; Structures: twice per site; Staging areas: twice/year/site. EGG/MEAT BAIT: twice/year/site. COMMERCIAL 0.1% STARLICIDE: maximum of 3 days. Quantity of DRC-1339 shipped from 1988 through 1991 increased 3.6 fold (47 to 171 pounds). The above information is from: USDA ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL PROGRAM, FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT, 1994.
 EDIT ADC: DRC-1339 (egg/meat bait)DRC-1339 [C7H9NCl2; CAS #7745-89-3] is an avicide which is "very highly toxic" to birds, "moderately toxic" to aquatic organisms and "slightly toxic" to mammals. Most avian species are adversely affected at low levels, hawks may be an exception. DRC-1339 is slow acting, lethal in a single feeding. Poisoned birds die in 3 hours to 3 days. It is most toxic to starlings, blackbirds, crows, jays and magpies (LD50 1-10 ppm). Doves, pigeons, quail, chickens, ducks and geese are slightly less sensitive (LD50 11-100 ppm). Target species include: starlings, blackbirds, pigeons, grackles, gulls, magpies, crows and ravens. Chronic toxicity is cumulative in birds. Chronic problems include egg breakage, infertile eggs, and decreased egg and live chick production. Chronic carcinogenic bioassays using rats indicated incidences of uterine tumors, but are "not convincing evidence for carcinogenicity". ADC states there is little potential for secondary poisoning hazards although crows have died after consuming pigeons killed with the much weaker commercial form (0.1% DRC-1339). In FY 1988 ADC reported killing 3,687,583 blackbirds in nine states and 1,012,242 starlings. The concentrate used by ADC personnel is 98% active ingredient while the much weaker commercially available form is 0.1% active ingredient. DRC-1339 is mixed with grain, bread, french fries, egg, or meat depending on target species. Bait carriers such as poultry pellets, dog food, and brown rice can be used. Grain baits are typically used at cattle, swine and poultry feed-lots (apparently includes dairies); staging areas (= areas within 1 mile of roost sites, such as open fields, pastures, or orchards, where large numbers of "blackbirds" congregate ...); and around structures (includes urban areas). DRC-1339 is used in bread cubes to kill gulls in coastal areas where it is hand placed in nests. Egg/meat baits are typically used relative to livestock operations to target ravens, crows and magpies. BISON-M coding reflects the type of bait used: Grain bait MGT = 4520; Egg/Meat bait MGT = 4525. DRC-1339 is highly soluble in water and has a half life in anaerobic soils of less than 2 days. It is rapidly metabolized in animals and apparently does not bio-accumulate. Death in birds is caused by uremic poisoning and congestion of major organs. Birds typically die away from poisoning sight. Toxic effects in mammals include central nervous system depression and muscular weakness. DRC-1339 is acutely and chronically toxic to a variety of mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Results of risk assessment suggest that potential hazards exist for any bird consuming DRC-1339 treated grain bait. Highest risk is to granivorous birds. Other non-target species that may be affected include squirrels and rabbits. Any egg-eating or carrion-eating animals occurring in areas where the bait is applied could be affected by consumption of DRC-1339 egg and meat bait. Because DRC-1339 is slow acting birds die away from the poisoning site; many more birds may be affected and not found. Possible Mitigation: Prebaiting, uneaten bait removal, removal of carcasses, not using when non-target species are present, seasonal restrictions, restricting use within range of certain species, observing bait continuously, and elevating bait. The FEIS (1994) recommends use of DRC-1339 GRAIN BAIT in staging areas be restricted within the range of the federally listed whooping cranes and Attwater's greater prairie chicken. Label DRC-1339 98% CONCENTRATE: For use only by USDA personnel trained in bird control or persons under their direct supervision. Hazards to humans: harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through skin. Environmental hazards: ... toxic to birds. Do not expose in areas accessible to waterfowl, poultry and other non-target birds. Keep out of lakes, ponds, streams. Do not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Endangered species considerations: Before undertaking any control operations with this product, consult with local, State, and Federal wildlife authorities to ensure the use of this product presents no hazard to any endangered species. USE RESTRICTIONS: DO NOT apply bait(s) in areas where there is danger of consumption by endangered species. When baiting is completed, remove all unconsumed bait ... Carcasses of dead or dying birds that are found should be collected and either burned or buried according to applicable laws. When controlling blackbirds, cowbirds, and grackles it may be necessary to obtain a kill-permit from the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and/or the applicable state wildlife agency. Disposal: Improper disposal of excess pesticide, spilled bait, or rinsate is a violation of Federal law. Maximum Application Frequency: GRAIN 98% CONCENTRATE: Feedlots: once/year/site; Structures: twice per site; Staging areas: twice/year/site. EGG/MEAT BAIT: twice/year/site. COMMERCIAL 0.1% STARLICIDE: maximum of 3 days. Quantity of DRC-1339 shipped from 1988 through 1991 increased 3.6 fold (47 to 171 pounds). The above information is from: USDA ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL PROGRAM, FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT, 1994.
 EDIT ADC: Fumigants in burrows/densDenning is the practice of locating coyote (and fox) dens and destroying the pups by fumigation of the den with the gas cartridge. The gas cartridge is registered as a fumigant by the EPA (EPA Reg. No. 56228-2) and is comprised of 35% charcoal and 65% sodium nitrate. The cartridges are placed in the active burrows, the fuse is lit, and the entrance is then tightly sealed with soil. When ignited, the cartridge burns in the den of an animal and produces large amounts of carbon monoxide, a colorless, tasteless gas, which kills animals in the den by oxygen depletion and carbon monoxide poisoning. Aluminum phosphide tablets are also used as a fumigant in prairie dog towns. (Predator Damage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in Northern NM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997; and USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Sodium Cyanide M-44M-44s are a spring activated ejector devices that discharge aûpacket of sodium cyanide into the mouth of animals pulling onûthe bait (designed specifically to kill coyotes and otherûcanine predators). The device consists of a capsule holderûwrapped with fur, cloth, or wool; a capsule containing 0.8 gramûof powdered sodium cyanide; an ejector mechanism; and a 5- toû7-inch hollow stake. The hollow stake is driven into theûground, the ejector unit is cocked and placed in the stake, andûthe capsule holder containing the cyanide capsule is screwedûonto the ejector unit. A piece of bait is spread on the capsuleûholder. When the M-44 is pulled, a spring-activated plungerûpropels sodium cyanide into the animal's mouth (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûM-44s are used for certain types of preventive and correctiveûPDM involving wild canid predators. Sodium cyanide is odorlessûwhen completely dry, but emits an odor when dampened, isûstrongly alkaline, and rapidly decomposes in the environment.ûSodium cyanide is freely soluble in water and is a fast actingûnonspecific toxicant inhibiting cellular respiration (PredatorûDamage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in NorthernûNM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: 1080 LP CollarsAbout the chemical: Sodium monofluoroacetate, also known as 1080 or Compound 1080, belongs to the class of chemicals known as fluoroacetates. It is a tasteless, odorless, water-soluble poison of extraordinary potency that has been used widely against rodents and other mammalian pests. There is no effective antidote for this chemical. The widespread use of 1080 in pest control has caused accidental deaths of livestock, wildlife, pets(cats and dogs) and humans. 1080 affect various species of wildlife too and cause primary or secondary poisoning in nontarget animals. The effect of 1080 poisoning on fishes, amphibians and reptiles are usually less than the warm blooded animals. However, not many studies have been done on effects on fish. Plants which accumulated the chemical were toxic by contact to eggs and larvae of large white butterfly and to various species of aphids. At least nine groups of terrestrial invertebrates are adversely affected by 1080-poisoned baits, by contaminated habitats with residues that leach from 1080 baits, or by consumption of animal byproducts and carcasses contaminated with 1080. Lethal effects are reported in houseflies, moths, aphids, ants, bees and mites that ate 1080-poisoned baits and in fleas that ingested 1080-poisoned rats. Cockroaches, collembolides, and slugs that ate poisoned baits experienced adverse effects. Egg production in wasps was disrupted. In birds, signs of 1080 poisoning first appeared 1 to 60 hrs. after dosing, and deaths occurred 1hr. to almost 11 days after dosing. Turkey vultures died 4-32 hrs. after 1080 dosing. They were more sensitive to the poison in colder temperature of 8-9deg.C than at 23-28deg.C. Some nontarget species of birds like sparrows, blackbirds, towhees, horned larks, McCown's longspurs, chestnut-collared longspurs, and western meadowlarks, died after eating 1080 poisoned baits. Avian scavengers such as vultures, condors, hawks, and ravens probably find poisoned food items as they search for carcasses. Some species of owls, including burrowing owls and barn owls were comparatively susceptible to 1080. Birds with poor reproductive potential and poor dispersal had a high risk of nonrecovery. Raptors are probably not at a great risk from consuming coyote killed by 1080 in livestock-protection collars. Golden eagles with a diet about 3 times the highest concentration of 1080 detected in carcasses of coyotes killed by 1080 in livestock-protection collars survived, though some showed signs of 1080 intoxication, such as loss of strength andûcoordination, lethargy, and tremors. The most sensitive tested mammal was the Texas pocket gopher with LD50 less than 0.50 mg 1080/kg. Carnivorous eutherian mammals were most sensitive to 1080 and amphibians were most resistant. Some species acquired tolerances to 1080 after repeated sublethal doses, and others accumulated the chemical until a lethal threshold was reached. Sublethal concentrations of 1080 may adversely affect reproduction, growth, and behavior. A paste containing petroleum jelly, soya oil, sugar, green dye, and 800 mg 1080/kg. remained toxic for 6-9 months to rats. Some aqueous solution of 1080 retain their rodenticidal properties for at least 12 months, but others loose 54% of their toxicity in within 24 days. 1080 in baits and carcasses is comparatively stable. Usually long and variable latent period between administration and response regardless of route of administration. With a few exception the latent period ranges from 30 min to 2 hrs., however death usually occurred within 24 hrs of exposure. In some cases the animal remain comatose until death as many as 6 days after poisoning. In a study, 1080 solutions that were prepared in distilled water and stored at room temperature for 10 yrs. showed no significant breakdown; moreover, solutions of 1080 prepared in stagnant algal-laden water did not lose biocidal properties during 12 months. 108 ûis absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, open wounds, mucous membranes, and the pulmonary epithelium; it is not readily absorbed through skin. All tested routes of 1080 administration are equally toxic. The interval between 1080 and dosage and signs of intoxication is at least 30 mins., regardless of dose or tested species, and must be considered in the evaluation of the efficacy of 1080. Coyotes, for example may continue to kill livestock after a lethal dose. And coyotes may travel some distance from their prey prior to incapacitation, making carcass recovery and program evaluation difficult. Uses of 1080: poisoning in nontarget animals. In USA, most uses of 1080 were canceled in 1972 partly because of the death of nontarget animals. Presently it is restricted to livestock protection collars on sheep and goats against predation by Coyotes (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994). Here is how 1080 collars work: The Livestock Protection Collar (LPC) is a method that takes advantage of the coyote's normal habitat of attacking at the neck of sheep and goats. It consists of two rubber pouches or reservoirs attached to Velcro or elastic straps. The reservoirs are filled with a toxicant solution of sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080). When a coyote attacks a collared sheep or goat, it generally punctures one or both of the reservoirs and ingests a lethal dose of the toxicant. It is the most selective method ever devised for removing offending individual coyotes. Sodium fluoroacetate is discriminatingly toxic to predators, being many times more lethal to them than to nontarget species. It is a white powder soluble in water and is very stable in solution. It causes death by disrupting the Kreb's Cycle, which is the energy producing process for cells. (Predator Damage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in Northern NM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997). The LPC would not be used on National Forest System lands in the District because of use restrictions. Other domestic uses of 1080 and secondary poisoning: Only licensed pest control operators can use 1080. Operators who handle 1080 should wear protective clothing, including gloves and a respirator; extreme caution is recommended at all times. In USA 37 known incidents of domestic animal poisoning resulted from federal use of 1080. Cats and dogs are highly susceptible to 1080 and may die after eating freshly poisoned rodents, dried carcasses, or 1080-baits or after drinking 1080-poisoned water. Poisoned insects may cause secondary poisoning of insectivores. Accordingly, 1080 should not be used in the vicinities of susceptible nontarget invertebrates or endangered insectivores. To prevent secondary poisoning, all uneaten baits and carcasses of poisoned rodents should be recovered and incinerated. Secondary poisoning of birds is documented. Insectivores birds that may have died after eating 1080 poinsoned ants in USA include acorn woodpeckers, the white breasted nuthatch and ash-throated flycatcher. However, the mortalities of nontarget birds from 1080 poisonings may be under reported because many die in their nests or roosts and are never found. High residues of 1080 are found in some animals like rabbits. Secondary poisoning were evident among carnivores after eating 1080-poisoned mammals. Baiting of California ground squirrel with 1080 reduced squirrel population by 85% and it also killed individuals of Heermann's kangaroo rat, little pocket mouse, the desert woodrat, the deer mouse, and the western harvest mouse. Secondary poisoning is probable among carrion eaters like foxes feeding on rabbits and other herbivores poisoned with 1080 treated carrots. Ground squirrel control with 1080 baits caused secondary poisoning of dogs, cats, coyotes, bobcats, skunks and kit foxes. A study suggest that 1080 is a factor in decline in the population of the highly endangered and threatened population of kit foxes. Tissues of 1080-poisoned coyote did not cause secondary poisoning to Virginia opossums, striped skunks, raccoons or badgers. Chance of secondary poisoning is minimum after consuming tissues of prairie dogs. No mink died after fed 1080 poisoned rabbits at 40% of the total diet if the rabbit gastrointestinal tract had been removed from the carcass. This suggests that the secondary toxicity from 1080 is due primarily to consumption of the unmetabolized compound from the gut of prey species. Historical accounts: Fluoroacetate compounds have been isolated in the plants in Australia, Brazil, and Africa. Ratsbane (Dichapetalum toxicarium) was known to be lethal to rats, livestock and humans. In 1800s they were used by African natives to poison the wells and water supplies of hostile tribes. Between 1946 and 1949, at least 12 humans died accidentally in USA from 1080 poisoning when used as a rodenticide. There is another incident where a child got sick from eating cooked meat of a squirrel which died of 1080 poisoning. In United States 1080 was first used in late 1940s to control gophers, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, field mice, commensal rodents and coyotes. The use of 1080 stations peaked in early 1960s, at which time 15 to 16 thousand stations were placed each winter in the western United States. The use of 1080 as a rodenticide was disallowed in 1985 for three reasons, 1)lack of a viable antidote, 2)high acute toxicity to nontarget mammals and birds and 3)a significant reduction in populations of nontarget organisms and fatalities to endangered species. In June 1989, technical 1080 was conditionally approved for use only in the livestock-protection collar. The 30-mL collar is registered for use by the U.S.Dept. of Agriculture and some states like Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, New Mexico and by the Rancher's Supply, Alpine, Texas. The livestock-protection collar may not be used in areas known to be frequented by endangered species of wildife, and these include various geographic areas in California, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. This decision to permit limited use of 1080 in livestock-protection collars is now being contested by at least 14 conservation groups because of its alleged hazard to nontarget organisms and humans, and because of availability of alternate and more successful methods of coyote control.
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (grain/corn bait)Strychnine is a white, bitter-tasting toxicant that is veryûtoxic to most mammals and birds, with the exception ofûgallinaceous birds, which are relatively resistant. Strychnineûhas been used on grain baits for above ground use on fieldûrodents, pigeons, and house sparrows. However, in 1988, allûabove ground uses were temporarily canceled (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (paste) 
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, below ground (grain bait)Strychnine is a white, bitter-tasting toxicant that is veryûtoxic to most mammals and birds, with the exception ofûgallinaceous birds, which are relatively resistant. Forûbelow-ground use in reducing pocket gopher populations,ûstrychnine is dispensed using the tractor-drawn burrow builder,ûwhich constructs an underground artificial burrow and placesûstrychnine-treated oat baits in the simulated gopher burrow.ûDuring their underground travels, the gophers intersect theûartificial burrows, consume the toxic bait, and die undergroundûThis method of application is used in both agricultural andûforest areas (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide (meat bait)Canned dog and cat food treated with zinc phosphide is used forûrat control. The odor of zinc phosphide is attractive toûrodents but repulsive to most other animals. Tarter emetic isûsometimes added to baits used to control rats. This safetyûfeature will cause most other species to regurgitate any zincûphosphide baits, they may consume. Its effectiveness for ratûcontrol is not compromised because rats are unable toûregurgitate (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).ûûSee MANAGEMENT CODE description: 4580 for further details onûzinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide (vegetables/fruit bait)Zinc phosphide is a metallic toxicant used for rat, vole,ûmuskrat, and nutria damage control. Zinc phosphide baits areûprepared with sweet potatoes, carrots, or apples for nutria andûmuskrat, and with apples, cracked corn, or oats for voleûcontrol.ûûBaits are either broadcast on the surface or placed inûunderground runways using the trail builder. Trail builders areûused to control vole damage in orchards or other ornamental orûcommercial tree plantings. Zinc phosphide-treated grain baitsûare widely used for controlling rodent damage in forests andûprairie dog damage in rangelands (USDA, Animal Damage ControlûProgram, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûûSee MANAGEMENT CODE description: 4580 for further details onûzinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide, above ground (grain bait)Zinc phosphide is a metallic toxicant used for rat, vole,ûmuskrat, and nutria damage control. Zinc phosphide baits areûprepared with sweet potatoes, carrots, or apples for nutria andûmuskrat, and with apples, cracked corn, or oats for voleûcontrol. The odor of zinc phosphide is attractive to rodentsûbut repulsive to most other animals. Tarter emetic is sometimesûadded to baits used to control rats. This safety feature willûcause most other species to regurgitate any zinc phosphideûbaits, they may consume. Its effectiveness for rat control isûnot compromised because rats are unable to regurgitate.ûBaits are either broadcast on the surface or placed inûunderground runways using the trail builder. Trail builders areûused to control vole damage in orchards or other ornamental orûcommercial tree plantings. Zinc phosphide-treated grain baitsûare widely used for controlling rodent damage in forests andûprairie dog damage in rangelands.ûûA research in an apple orchard where zinc phosphide baits wereûused indicated that the bait remain toxic for a period of overû5 months. Zinc phosphide bait for voles in apple orchards areûlikely threats to cottontails, gallinaceous birds andûgranivorous passerines. Another study showed granivorous birdsûreadily accepted zinc phosphide treated baits.ûûA study in a stream adjacent to sugarcane plantation treatedûwith zinc phosphide baits found that the contamination did notûsignificantly affect the fish or crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)ûpopulation, but the river shrimp population declined.ûûZinc phosphide claim a large number of non-target species. InûCalifornia 455 geese were apparently killed by oat coated withû1% zinc phosphide about 3 months after they were applied. InûOregon large scale application of bait treated with 1% zincûphosphide killed 3676 geese. In the same way 30 Canada geeseûwere killed on a treated Michigan golf course. In Michigan, 10ûgray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in 1 incident and 24 wildûturkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in 7 different incidents wereûkilled by zinc phosphide baits. Such baits also claimed severalûcottontails in California. Another document reports that twoûcats were found dead adjacent to a no-till corn field illegallyûtreated with 2 percent zinc phosphide.ûûA few reports are available which indicate the danger ofûconsumption of animal killed by zinc phosphide poisoning. InûMichigan, 2 red foxes died of eating mice killed with grainûbaits treated with zinc phosphide. Another report indicate thatûdogs were killed eating squirrels who died of zinc phosphideûpoisoning. Several such cases of secondary poisoning of catsûand dogs have been reported.ûûSeveral cases of zinc phosphide poisoning by treated baits orûas a secondary effect of eating animals poisoned by zincûphosphide have been reported from foreign countries. In formerûCzechoslovakia approximately 3,000 birds of Corvidae wereûkilled in 1988 after wheat fields were treated with 2.5% zincûphosphide to control voles. In Netherlands 500-1000 geese and aûnumber of ducks, partridges, and hares died from suchûapplication. In England, a colt died after consuming baitûtreated with an unknown percentage of zinc phosphide. Inûanother incident 6 of the 9 horses died due to the same cause.ûThe result of application of rice bait treated with zincûphosphide in a village in Thailand show that three dogs, nineûchickens and three ducks living in the village died as a resultûof zinc phosphide application. In an unusual case of secondaryûpoisoning, 10 chicken died after eating remains of rats killedûwith zinc phosphide in India.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide, below ground (grain bait)See MANAGEMENT CODE : 4580 for details on zinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Anti-coagulant (warfarin, etc.)Several anticoagulant rodenticides are used to controlûcommensal rodents and some field rodents around buildings andûother structures. Common anticoagulants include warfarin andûdiphacinone. Anticoagulants are normally classified asûmultiple-dose toxicants. For the materials to be effective,ûanimals must feed on the bait more than once. However, someûnewer formulations only require a single feeding to beûeffective. Bait for rats and mice must be continuouslyûavailable for 2 to 3 weeks for effective population control.ûAnticoagulants may be mixed with water or with dry bait, suchûas rolled oats, corn meal, cracked grains, or presented inûcombination (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).
 EDIT ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL (ADC) Non-Chemical 
 EDIT ADC: Leghold trapsLeghold traps are used to capture animals such as the coyote,ûbobcat, fox, mink, beaver, raccoon, skunk, muskrat, nutria, andûmountain lion. These traps are the most versatile and widelyûused tool for capturing these species. They are used in bothûterrestrial and shallow aquatic environments. When placedûwithout baits in the travel lanes of target animals, legholdûtraps are known as "trail sets". More frequently, traps areûplaced as "baited sets." In some situations, a "draw station",ûsuch as a carcass or a large piece of meat, is used to attractûtarget animals. APHIS ADC program policy prohibits placement ofûtraps closer than 30 feet to the draw station (providingûprotection to scavenging birds). Traps are secured either by aûchain and stake driven into the ground or by a chain and "drag"ûwhich hangs up in brush soon after the captured animal leavesûthe trap site. In most cases, the target animal is euthanizedûby shooting.ûVarious tension devices can be used to prevent animals smallerûthan target animals from springing the trap. Effective trapûplacement also contributes to trap selectivity; however,ûlivestock and other nontarget animals may be captured. Theseûtraps usually permit the release of nontarget animals.ûPole traps are used to capture raptors (hawks and owls). Theûpoles are 5 to 10 feet high, are erected and a padded-jawûleghold trap (usually size 1 1/2) is set on the top of eachûpole. A steel wire is passed through the trap chain andûattached to the top and base of the pole to allow the trap andûbird to slide to the ground after being captured. Injury toûtarget and nontarget animals may occur. (USDA, Animal DamageûControl Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Cage / Live trapsA variety of cage traps are used in different wildlife damageûcontrol efforts. The most commonly known cage traps used in theûcurrent program are box traps. Box traps are usuallyûrectangular, made from wood or heavy gauge mesh wire. Theseûtraps are used to capture animals alive and can often be usedûwhere many lethal or more dangerous tools would be tooûhazardous. They are used to capture animals ranging in sizeûfrom mice to deer; however, large cage traps work well toûcapture bears and have shown promise for capturing mountainûlions. They are effective for capturing beaver also. Cage trapsûmust be checked frequently to ensure that captured animals areûnot subjected to extreme environmental conditions. Some animalsûfight to escape from cage traps and become injured. Large decoyûtraps are used to capture starlings, blackbirds, crows, andûravens. A few live birds are maintained in the baited trap toûattract birds of the same species and, as such act as decoysû(USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Kill trapsA number of specialized "quick-kill" traps are used in wildlifeûdamage control work. They include Conibear, snap, gopher, andûmole traps. Conibear traps are used to capture muskrat, nutria,ûand beaver. Snap traps are common household rat or mouse trapsûusually placed in buildings. Glue boards (composed of shallow,ûflat containers of an extremely sticky substance) are also usedûas an alternative to snap traps. Spring-powered harpoon trapsûare used to control damage caused by surface-tunneling moles.ûTwo variations of scissor-like traps are also used in burrowsûfor both mole and pocket gopher population control (USDA,ûAnimal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Snares, neck & legSnares are made of wire or cable are among the oldest existingûcontrol tools. They can be used effectively to catch mostûspecies but are most frequently used to capture coyotes,ûbeaver, and bears. They are either lethal or live-captureûdevices depending on how and where they are set. Snares set toûcapture an animal by the neck are usually lethal (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûThe animal is generally caught by the neck and stranglesûrelatively quickly. Foot snares are set for target lions andûbears and use tension devices so that lighter weight nontargetûanimals cannot generally trip them and be caught (PredatorûDamage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in NorthernûNM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: Aerial shootingShooting is used selectively for target species and is anûessential control method. Shooting is frequently performed inûconjunction with calling particular predators such as coyotes,ûbobcats, and fox. Shooting from aircraft, or aerial hunting, isûa commonly used coyote killing method. Aerial hunting isûspecies-selective and can be used for immediate control whereûhunting can be effective in removing offending coyotes.ûFixed-wing aircraft are useful for aerial hunting over flat andûgently rolling terrain. Helicopters are used over timberedûareas and broken land where animals are more difficult to spotû(USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Ground shootingGround shooting is selective for target species and may be usedûin conjunction with the use of spotlights, decoy dogs, andûpredator calling (Predator Damage Management in the AlbuquerqueûADC District in Northern NM. Environmental Assessment;ûPre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: Flooding burrows 
 EDIT CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Chemical; Pesticides & organic chem.; general 
 EDIT Chemical; Herbicides, general 
 EDIT Chemical; Insecticides, general 
 EDIT Chemical; Inorganic, general 
 EDIT Chemical; radioactive materials 
 EDIT Chemical; heavy metals 
 EDIT Chemical; Antimycin 
 EDIT Chemical; Bacillus thuringensis (BT, bacteria) 
 EDIT Chemical; Copper (CHR under dev.'95) 
 EDIT Chemical; Freon (CFC) 
 EDIT Chemical; Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) 
 EDIT Chemical; Petroleum liquids (oils, fuels, etc.) 
 EDIT Chemical; Rotenone 
 EDIT Chemical; Round-up/Rodeo 
 EDIT Chemical; Sodium Chloride (e.g., road salt) 
 EDIT Chemical; Solar Radiation 
 EDIT Chemical; Strychnine 
 EDIT Chemical; Tebuthiron (herbicide) 
 EDIT Chemical; See USFWS Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR#)The genus or species is mentioned in the US Fish & Wildlife Service, US Department of the Interior, Contaminant Hazard Review Series, published by Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, USFWS, information about the effect on the species.
 EDIT Chemical; Mirex (CHR #1) 
 EDIT Chemical; Cadmium (CHR #2) 
 EDIT Chemical; Carbofuran (CHR #3) 
 EDIT Chemical; Toxaphene (CHR #4) 
 EDIT Chemical; Selenium (CHR #5) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chromium (CHR #6) 
 EDIT Chemical; Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB, DDT; CHR #7) 
 EDIT Chemical; Dioxins (CHR #8) 
 EDIT Chemical; Diazinon (CHR #9) 
 EDIT Chemical; Mercury (CHR #10) 
 EDIT Chemical; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH; CHR #11) 
 EDIT Chemical; Arsenic (CHR #12) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chlorpyrifos (CHR #13) 
 EDIT Chemical; Lead (CHR #14) 
 EDIT Chemical; Tin (CHR #15) 
 EDIT Chemical; Pentachlorophenol (pcp/PENTA; CHR #17) 
 EDIT Chemical; Atrazine (CHR #18) 
 EDIT Chemical; Molybdenum (CHR #19) 
 EDIT Chemical; Boron (CHR #20) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chlordane (CHR #21) 
 EDIT Chemical; Paraquat (CHR #22) 
 EDIT Chemical; Cyanide (CHR #23) 
 EDIT Chemical; Fenvalerate (CHR #24) 
 EDIT Chemical; Diflubenzuron (CHR #25) 
 EDIT Chemical; Zinc (CHR #26) 
 EDIT Chemical; Famphur (CHR #27) 
 EDIT Chemical; Acrolein (CHR #28) 
 EDIT Chemical; Radiation (CHR #29) 
 EDIT Chemical; Sodium Monofluoroacetate (10-80; CHR #30) 
 EDIT Chemical; Planar PCB's (CHR #31) 
 EDIT Chemical; Silver (CHR #32) 
 EDIT TRANSPORTATION, UTILITIES & STRUCTURESGeneral heading including bridges, pipelines, power andûtelephone lines, towers, trenches, structures (e.g.,ûbuildings), etc.
 EDIT Bridges; general 
 EDIT Bridges; to create bat habitat 
 EDIT Bridges; in-stream piers 
 EDIT Pipelines; general 
 EDIT Pipelines; underground (vs. above grnd.) 
 EDIT Pipelines; aboveground (vs. undergrnd) 
 EDIT Overhead Wires/Poles: power/telephone/etc:generalIncludes above ground wires such as power, telephone andûtelegraph lines, antennae wires,etc. and associated supportûstructures such as poles towers, etc.; excludes wire fences.ûAdverse affect on wildlife may be from collision,ûelectro-magnetic fields, behavioral changes, habitatûfrgmentation, etc. Beneficial affects may be as nest and roostûsites, hunting perches, etc.
 EDIT Power-lines/Transformers; electrocutionTaxa at risk from electrocution ny power-lines andûtransformers.
 EDIT Overhead wires; collisionsTaxa considered at risk from collision with overhead wires suchûas high and low voltage power lines,, telephones, telegraphûlines, antennae wires, support cables, etc;excluding wireûfences.
 EDIT TowersIncludes guyed and unguyed towers for communications, fire lookouts, light beacons, tall smoke/exhaust stacks, tall buildings, etc. Risk to wildlife is generally from collision during flight (birds and bats). Beneficial may be as nest supports, roosting, hunting perches, etc.
 EDIT Wind turbines/generatorsTaxa at risk from wind generators and wind turbine facilities.
 EDIT Lighted StucturesIncludes lighted structures such as buildings, light poles,ûetc. Impacts to wildlife may be attraction and collision,ûattraction and predation, etc. Beneficialmay be concentrationûof prey, etc.
 EDIT WindowsImpacts to wildlife are generally from collision.
 EDIT Trenches/cattle guards/pitfallsIncludes surfacee structures with vertical walls wich functionûas pitfall traps such as trenches, pits, box type cattle gaurdsûwithout escape ramps, vertical mine shafts, etc.
 EDIT Aircraft; low flying; disturbance 
 EDIT Aircraft; collisions 
 EDIT Aircraft; sonic booms 
 EDIT Aircraft/missiles; high over-pressure 
 EDIT Railroad traffic; disturbance 
 EDIT INDUSTRIAL 
 EDIT MINING; general 
 EDIT Mining; general surface mining 
 EDIT Mining; general underground mining 
 EDIT Mining; sand & gravel 
 EDIT Mining activity 
 EDIT Mining; dust 
 EDIT Mining; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Mining; exploration 
 EDIT Mining; instream operations; SEE AQUATIC MGT 
 EDIT Mining; surface rock from talus slope 
 EDIT Mining; surface rock picked up on ground 
 EDIT Mining; explosions; SEE GEN MGT 
 EDIT Mine de-watering; lower water table 
 EDIT Mine de-watering; out-put to surface water 
 EDIT Mine output; sediment to surface water 
 EDIT Mine output; acidic drainage output 
 EDIT Mine output; heavy metals; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Mine output; uranium, SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Mine practice; Cyanide Leaching; SEE CHEMICALSCyanide leaching operations where surface water containingûcyanide is available to wildlife. Does not includeûcontamination of ground water by cyanide.
 EDIT Mine reclam.; retain highwall 
 EDIT Mine reclam.; approximate original contours 
 EDIT Mine reclam.; recommend reveg species; SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Mine closure; leave open shafts (vert.) 
 EDIT Mine closure; leave open adits (horiz.) 
 EDIT Mine closure; install bat grates 
 EDIT Oil & gas; sump/pits + water + toxinsAny pit, sump or pond containing water and toxic substances. Toxic substances may be in solution, suspension, or surface. Also includes petroleum products on surface.
 EDIT Oil & gas; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Oil & gas; heater-treater units 
 EDIT Oil & gas; seismic activity 
 EDIT Oil & gas; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT MISCELLANEOUS 
 EDIT Down-hill ski areas 
 EDIT CLIMATE CHANGEIncludes one or more of multiple effects from global climate change on species and ecosystems that have management implications for biodiversity conservation, as defined by: Mawdsley, J. R., R. O'Malley, and D. S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23:1080-1089. Effects may include changes in distribution, phenology, timing of co-evolved events, demographic rates, population sizes, isolated population persistence, quantity of available habitat, diseases, competitors, or invasive species.
 EDIT Climate change: distribution shiftsShifts in species distributions, often along elevational gradients
 EDIT Climate change: phenology changesChanges in the timing of life-history events, or phenology, for particular species
 EDIT Climate change: altered timing of co-evolved eventsChanges in timing of biological events, which may lead to mismatching or decoupling of coevolved interactions, such as plant–pollinator relationships
 EDIT Climate change: demographic rate changesEffects on demographic rates, such as survival and fecundity
 EDIT Climate change: sensitive/isolated population persistenceReductions or increases in population size (especially for boreal or montane species), including extinction or extirpation of range-restricted or isolated species and populations, by stochastic or other events
 EDIT Climate change: quantity of available habitatDirect loss or gain of habitat due to sea-level rise, increased fire frequency, bark beetle outbreaks, altered weather patterns, glacial recession, and direct warming of habitats (such as mountain streams)
 EDIT Climate change: spread of diseasesIncreased or decreased spread of wildlife diseases, parasites, and zoonoses (including Lyme borreliosis and plague)
 EDIT Climate change: modified competitive interactionsIncreased or decreased populations of species that are direct competitors of focal species for conservation efforts
 EDIT Climate change: species invasionsIncreased or decreased spread of invasive or non-native species, including plants, animals, and pathogens
 EDIT Climate change: extreme eventsDrought, increased fire, heat waves, floods, etc.
 EDIT Veg Mgt; biocontrol of invasive speciesBiocontrol agents can be used to remove invasive plant species. For example, tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) has been used to defoliate exotic saltcedar or tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).
 EDIT Wildl Mgt; illegal take/over collectionSpecies is either being collected without a license or permit, or over collected.
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; control spread of diseaseActivities that help to mitigate the spread of disease through wildlife populations. Includes activities like distributing antibiotics and restricting movement of infected individuals.
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; natural defense against diseaseIncludes taking advantage of natural defenses that organisms may have against disease when managing species. For example, some bats have naturally occurring bacteria that produce compounds with anti-fungal properties that may prevent growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome.
 EDIT Oil & gas; hydraulic fracturingHydraulic fracturing, or fracking, entails pumping water into wells under high pressure, forcing open fissures in the rock. Sand blasted into the holes keeps the cracks open, allowing for oil and gas to be pumped out.
 EDIT Sensitive to: vegetation changeVegetation changes may be driven by multiple or variable factors, or may have unknown drivers. Vegetation changes may include: woody plant encroachment into grassland areas and spread of non-native riparian plants into riparian areas without woody plants or areas with native woody plant vegetation.
 EDIT Sensitive to: recreational fishingIncludes indirect effects of fishing, including ingestion of discarded fish hooks or entanglement in discarded fishing line.
 EDIT Uncapped vertical pipesMay include gate posts and bollards, which are vertical pipes used for traffic control and physical security of buildings and facilities (e.g., water monitoring wells).


Related Code Table