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Code Table List


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Management Practice Codes

 CodeDescription
 EDIT GENERAL 
 EDIT Education; correct species misconceptions 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate take: amt/method/season/age/sex 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate take: SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; regulate by mgt units 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; control access/transport methods 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; establish wildlife refuges 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; transplant to available habitat 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; introduce/establish/stock non-native wildlife 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; introduce/establish/stock non-native fish 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; restrict disturbance of species 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; restrict disturbance of habitat 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; relocate problem individuals 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; sheet metal fence 18" high 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; supplement feeding (e.g. winter) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to visual repellant (scarecrow) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to taste repellant 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; responds to noise repellant (zon-guns) 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; artificial nest structures 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; artificial leks/display grounds 
 EDIT Wildl. Mgt; create artificial H20 source 
 EDIT Sensitive to; feral dogs 
 EDIT Sensitive to; feral domestic cats 
 EDIT Sensitive to; noise disturbance 
 EDIT Sensitive to: ORV/Snowmobiles 
 EDIT Sensitive to; heavy equipmt noise/activity 
 EDIT Sensitive to; human presence/activity 
 EDIT Sensitive to; human foot traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; horse traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; bicycle traffic 
 EDIT Sensitive to; highway traffic (hi-speed/continuous) 
 EDIT Sensitive to; road traffic (slow/vehicles stop often) 
 EDIT Sensitive to; soil pH 
 EDIT Habitat; undisturbed/undeveloped areas 
 EDIT Habitat; terrestrial snags 
 EDIT Habitat; aquatic snags/roots/logs 
 EDIT Habitat; coarse woody debris (down logs) 
 EDIT Habitat; brush/debris pilesNatural or manmade piles of brush or slash, and piles of debrisûpiled along rivers, streams, and arroyos by high water.
 EDIT Habitat; rock piles 
 EDIT Habitat; talus slopes 
 EDIT Habitat; malpais-lava flows 
 EDIT Habitat; cliffs 
 EDIT Habitat; caves & abandoned mines 
 EDIT Habitat; islands 
 EDIT Habitat; mineral licks 
 EDIT Habitat; Underground burrow / den 
 EDIT Habitat; mast producing trees (oak/juniper) 
 EDIT Habitat; large trees - den/nest/roost 
 EDIT Habitat; small forest openings 
 EDIT Habitat; special hab. features: SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; wilderness; no roads/machines 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; recreational dev.; camp/picnic areas 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; urban green belts 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; movement corridors 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; woodlots 
 EDIT Habitat Mgt; garbage dumps/landfills 
 EDIT Roads; general 
 EDIT Roads; increase habitat access/hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Roads; restrict access (locked gates vs open road) 
 EDIT Roads; numerous roadkills; highways/mine roads, etc. 
 EDIT Roads; paved and unpaved, disturbance 
 EDIT Roads; unpaved, sedimentation 
 EDIT Trails; general 
 EDIT Underpasses/Overpasses for wildlife 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; increase habitat access 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; herbicides; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; fragment habitat 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; habitat change (e.g. forest to shrub) 
 EDIT Rights-of-way; mow agric. fields, etc. 
 EDIT Lower water table; mine de-watering/irrigate/etc. 
 EDIT Drain wetlands; SEE AQUATIC MGT 
 EDIT Wind/snow breaks/hedgerows; with trees/shrubs 
 EDIT Fences; general 
 EDIT Fences; barbed wire 
 EDIT Fences; woven wire 
 EDIT Fences; SEE COMMENTS FOR SPECIFICATIONS 
 EDIT Explosions; underground vibrations 
 EDIT Explosions; surface noise 
 EDIT Explosions; underwater 
 EDIT Oil spills; terrestrial 
 EDIT Oil spills; into aquatic system 
 EDIT Dust; heavy dust (roads/mining/construct) 
 EDIT Industrial Developmt; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Ecosystem; killing prairie dogsThis species alters the environment and creates habitat used byûor important to other species. This is considered a "keystoneûspecies".
 EDIT Ecosystem; killing beaverThis species alters the environment and creates habitat used byûor important to other species. This is considered a "keystoneûspecies".
 EDIT Taxa may be detrimental to ecosystem where non-nativeThese taxa (most are not native to the Southwest) may causeûadverse impacts to native flora, fauna and ecosystems inûlocalities where they are non-native.
 EDIT VEGETATION 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; early 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; middle 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; late (non-forest) 
 EDIT Veg Seral stage; oldgrowth forest 
 EDIT Veg diversity; ecotones, edge 
 EDIT Veg diversity; lack of edge/lg. patch size 
 EDIT Veg diversity; high vertical diversity 
 EDIT Veg diversity; low vertical diversity 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; fire exclusion 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; Fire, prescribed & natural burns 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; Fire, intense stand replacing 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; chaining 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; fertilize 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; revegetate disturbed areas 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; restore riparian with willow/cottonwd 
 EDIT Veg Mgt; food plots for wildlife 
 EDIT Forestry; even-age management 
 EDIT Forestry; uneven-age management 
 EDIT Forestry; reforestation 
 EDIT Forestry; timber stand improvement: thinning 
 EDIT Forestry; slash/log/debris disposal 
 EDIT Forestry; Mistletoe 
 EDIT Logging; general 
 EDIT Logging; disturbance/activity 
 EDIT Logging; roads; SEE GEN MGT 
 EDIT Logging; cut/deforest'n (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; clearcuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; seed tree cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; selection cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; shelterwood cuts (vs no logging) 
 EDIT Logging; slash (vs no slash) 
 EDIT AQUATIC / WETLAND / RIPARIAN 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; montane cold water streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; montane beaver ponds 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; tarns (cirque basin lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; stock ponds, warm water 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; lowland/warm H2O-streams/rivers 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; warm springs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; cold springs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; man-made reservoirs 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; wetlands (bogs - lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; forested wetlands 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; playas 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; marshes (emergent veg) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; bogs (wet spongy ground) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; mud-flats 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; islands in perm. water 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; pools in streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; riffles in streams 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; mixed pools/riffles 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; submerged logs/brush/snags 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; eutrophic waters 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; oligotrophic waters 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to DO (dissolved O2) 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to turbidity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to sedimentation 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to pH 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to conductivity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to salinity 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to Total Dissolved Solids TDS 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to H20 temp 
 EDIT Aquatic Habitat; sensitive to contaminants 
 EDIT Hydrology; sensitive to hydrograph patterns (flow levels) 
 EDIT Hydrology; sensitive to water levels on reservoirs/lakes 
 EDIT Aquatic Veg; minimize aquatic plants 
 EDIT Aquatic Veg; establish aquatic plants 
 EDIT Riparian Veg; reduce shade over water 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; drain wetlands (bogs - lakes) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; burn wetlands/maintain successional stages 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; artificial islands or rafts in H2O 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; protect stream/ditch bank: gabions/rock/rip-rap 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; vegetate stream/ditch bank 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; maintain beaver pop's (ponds/H2O chemistry) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; dams in large rivers 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; river structures: piers/piles/bouys/wing dams 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; dredging 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; deposition of fill in H2O 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; underwater mining 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; channelization 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; line channels/ditches 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; waste-water treatment; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; create artificial stream meanders 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; develop fishways at dams 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; install "Bubblers" 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; bridges (vs fords or culverts) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; open bottom culvert (vs round culvert pipe) 
 EDIT Aquatic Mgt; hard bottom ford (vs mud bottom) 
 EDIT AGRICULTURE 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; general 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; controlled (vs un-controlled) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; light/moderate (vs no grazing) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; heavy (vs no grazing) 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; in riparian zones 
 EDIT Livestock grazing; specific areas/seasons; SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: high/poor 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: mod./poor 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/excel. 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/good 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/fair 
 EDIT Range condit.; Product./Condit. Class: low/poor 
 EDIT Farming; general (crops planted/harvested) 
 EDIT Clean Farming; no weeds, shrubs, etc. 
 EDIT Agriculture: economic importanceThis species is considered of economic importance toûagriculture. May affect farm crops or range conditions forûlivestock.
 EDIT Retain crop residue (over-winter) 
 EDIT Water Tanks; dirt stock tanks 
 EDIT Water Tanks; vert. sided/open top (steel/concrete) 
 EDIT Irrigation; general 
 EDIT Irrigation; de-watering streams 
 EDIT Irrigation; lower water table; groundwater pumping 
 EDIT Irrigation; change soil/ground H20 salinity 
 EDIT Plowing; tilling land 
 EDIT Plowing; during nesting season 
 EDIT Praire dog control/destruction 
 EDIT ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL (ADC) Chemical 
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (meat bait): HISTORICAL 
 EDIT ADC: Alpha-chloralose (bird toxicant/capture) 
 EDIT ADC: Avitrol (grain bait)The avian frightening agent Avitrol (4-aminopyridine) is usedûto deter birds from specific crops and areas. It is usedûprimarily to control flocking blackbirds and starlings but itûmay also be used to control gulls, pigeons, sparrows and crows.ûAvitrol is applied as a mixture of treated and untreated grain.ûThe birds that eat treated grain usually die, but in theûprocess they emit distress calls and fly erratically. Avitrolûis also used to repel gulls from garbage dumps and airportsû(USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: DRC-1339 (grain bait)DRC-1339 [C7H9NCl2; CAS #7745-89-3] is an avicide which isû"very highly toxic" to birds, "moderately toxic" to aquaticûorganisms and "slightly toxic" to mammals. Most avian speciesûare adversely affected at low levels, hawks may be anûexception. DRC-1339 is slow acting, lethal in a single feeding.ûPoisoned birds die in 3 hours to 3 days. It is most toxic toûstarlings, blackbirds, crows, jays and magpies (LD50 1-10 ppm).ûDoves, pigeons, quail, chickens, ducks and geese are slightlyûless sensitive (LD50 11-100 ppm). Target species include:ûstarlings, blackbirds, pigeons, grackles, gulls, magpies, crowsûand ravens. Chronic toxicity is cumulative in birds. Chronicûproblems include egg breakage, infertile eggs, and decreasedûegg and live chick production. Chronic carcinogenic bioassaysûusing rats indicated incidences of uterine tumors, but are "notûconvincing evidence for carcinogenicity". ADC states there isûlittle potential for secondary poisoning hazards although crowsûhave died after consuming pigeons killed with the much weakerûcommercial form (0.1% DRC-1339). In FY 1988 ADC reportedûkilling 3,687,583 blackbirds in nine states and 1,012,242ûstarlings.ûThe concentrate used by ADC personnel is 98% activeûingredient while the much weaker commercially available form isû0.1% active ingredient. DRC-1339 is mixed with grain, bread,ûfrench fries, egg, or meat depending on target species. Baitûcarriers such as poultry pellets, dog food, and brown rice canûbe used.ûGrain baits are typically used at cattle, swine andûpoultry feed-lots (apparently includes dairies); staging areasû(= areas within 1 mile of roost sites, such as open fields,ûpastures, or orchards, where large numbers of "blackbirds"ûcongregate ...); and around structures (includes urban areas).ûDRC-1339 is used in bread cubes to kill gulls in coastal areasûwhere it is hand placed in nests. Egg/meat baits are typicallyûused relative to livestock operations to target ravens, crowsûand magpies. BISON-M coding reflects the type of bait used:ûGrain bait MGT = 4520; Egg/Meat bait MGT = 4525.ûûDRC-1339 is highly soluble in water and has a half life inûanaerobic soils of less than 2 days. It is rapidly metabolizedûin animals and apparently does not bio-accumulate. Death inûbirds is caused by uremic poisoning and congestion of majorûorgans. Birds typically die away from poisoning sight. Toxicûeffects in mammals include central nervous system depressionûand muscular weakness. DRC-1339 is acutely and chronicallyûtoxic to a variety of mammalian, avian, and aquatic species.ûûResults of risk assessment suggest that potential hazards existûfor any bird consuming DRC-1339 treated grain bait. Highestûrisk is to granivorous birds. Other non-target species that mayûbe affected include squirrels and rabbits. Any egg-eating orûcarrion-eating animals occurring in areas where the bait isûapplied could be affected by consumption of DRC-1339 egg andûmeat bait.ûûBecause DRC-1339 is slow acting birds die away fromûthe poisoning site; many more birds may be affected and notûfound.ûûPossible Mitigation: Prebaiting, uneaten bait removal,ûremoval of carcasses, not using when non-target species areûpresent, seasonal restrictions, restricting use within range ofûcertain species, observing bait continuously, and elevatingûbait. The FEIS (1994) recommends use of DRC-1339 GRAIN BAIT inûstaging areas be restricted within the range of the federallyûlisted whooping cranes and Attwater's greater prairie chicken.ûûLabel DRC-1339 98% CONCENTRATE: For use only by USDA personnelûtrained in bird control or persons under their directûsupervision. Hazards to humans: harmful if swallowed, inhaledûor absorbed through skin. Environmental hazards: ... toxic toûbirds. Do not expose in areas accessible to waterfowl, poultryûand other non-target birds. Keep out of lakes, ponds, streams.ûDo not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Endangeredûspecies considerations: Before undertaking any controlûoperations with this product, consult with local, State, andûFederal wildlife authorities to ensure the use of this productûpresents no hazard to any endangered species. USE RESTRICTIONS:ûDO NOT apply bait(s) in areas where there is danger ofûconsumption by endangered species. When baiting is completed,ûremove all unconsumed bait ... Carcasses of dead or dying birdsûthat are found should be collected and either burned or buriedûaccording to applicable laws. When controlling blackbirds,ûcowbirds, and grackles it may be necessary to obtain aûkill-permit from the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and/or theûapplicable state wildlife agency. Disposal: Improper disposalûof excess pesticide, spilled bait, or rinsate is a violation ofûFederal law.ûûMaximum Application Frequency: GRAIN 98% CONCENTRATE: Feedlots:ûonce/year/site; Structures: twice per site; Staging areas:ûtwice/year/site. EGG/MEAT BAIT: twice/year/site. COMMERCIALû0.1% STARLICIDE: maximum of 3 days.ûûQuantity of DRC-1339 shipped from 1988 through 1991 increasedû3.6 fold (47 to 171 pounds).ûThe above information is from:ûUSDA ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL PROGRAM, FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTûSTATEMENT, 1994.
 EDIT ADC: DRC-1339 (egg/meat bait)DRC-1339 [C7H9NCl2; CAS #7745-89-3] is an avicide which isû"very highly toxic" to birds, "moderately toxic" to aquaticûorganisms and "slightly toxic" to mammals. Most avian speciesûare adversely affected at low levels, hawks may be anûexception. DRC-1339 is slow acting, lethal in a single feeding.ûPoisoned birds die in 3 hours to 3 days. It is most toxic toûstarlings, blackbirds, crows, jays and magpies (LD50 1-10 ppm).ûDoves, pigeons, quail, chickens, ducks and geese are slightlyûless sensitive (LD50 11-100 ppm). Target species include:ûstarlings, blackbirds, pigeons, grackles, gulls, magpies, crowsûand ravens. Chronic toxicity is cumulative in birds. Chronicûproblems include egg breakage, infertile eggs, and decreasedûegg and live chick production. Chronic carcinogenic bioassaysûusing rats indicated incidences of uterine tumors, but are "notûconvincing evidence for carcinogenicity". ADC states there isûlittle potential for secondary poisoning hazards although crowsûhave died after consuming pigeons killed with the much weakerûcommercial form (0.1% DRC-1339). In FY 1988 ADC reportedûkilling 3,687,583 blackbirds in nine states and 1,012,242ûstarlings.ûThe concentrate used by ADC personnel is 98% activeûingredient while the much weaker commercially available form isû0.1% active ingredient. DRC-1339 is mixed with grain, bread,ûfrench fries, egg, or meat depending on target species. Baitûcarriers such as poultry pellets, dog food, and brown rice canûbe used.ûGrain baits are typically used at cattle, swine andûpoultry feed-lots (apparently includes dairies); staging areasû(= areas within 1 mile of roost sites, such as open fields,ûpastures, or orchards, where large numbers of "blackbirds"ûcongregate ...); and around structures (includes urban areas).ûDRC-1339 is used in bread cubes to kill gulls in coastal areasûwhere it is hand placed in nests. Egg/meat baits are typicallyûused relative to livestock operations to target ravens, crowsûand magpies. BISON-M coding reflects the type of bait used:ûGrain bait MGT = 4520; Egg/Meat bait MGT = 4525.ûûDRC-1339 is highly soluble in water and has a half life inûanaerobic soils of less than 2 days. It is rapidly metabolizedûin animals and apparently does not bio-accumulate. Death inûbirds is caused by uremic poisoning and congestion of majorûorgans. Birds typically die away from poisoning sight. Toxicûeffects in mammals include central nervous system depressionûand muscular weakness. DRC-1339 is acutely and chronicallyûtoxic to a variety of mammalian, avian, and aquatic species.ûûResults of risk assessment suggest that potential hazards existûfor any bird consuming DRC-1339 treated grain bait. Highestûrisk is to granivorous birds. Other non-target species that mayûbe affected include squirrels and rabbits. Any egg-eating orûcarrion-eating animals occurring in areas where the bait isûapplied could be affected by consumption of DRC-1339 egg andûmeat bait.ûûBecause DRC-1339 is slow acting birds die away fromûthe poisoning site; many more birds may be affected and notûfound.ûûPossible Mitigation: Prebaiting, uneaten bait removal,ûremoval of carcasses, not using when non-target species areûpresent, seasonal restrictions, restricting use within range ofûcertain species, observing bait continuously, and elevatingûbait. The FEIS (1994) recommends use of DRC-1339 GRAIN BAIT inûstaging areas be restricted within the range of the federallyûlisted whooping cranes and Attwater's greater prairie chicken.ûûLabel DRC-1339 98% CONCENTRATE: For use only by USDA personnelûtrained in bird control or persons under their directûsupervision. Hazards to humans: harmful if swallowed, inhaledûor absorbed through skin. Environmental hazards: ... toxic toûbirds. Do not expose in areas accessible to waterfowl, poultryûand other non-target birds. Keep out of lakes, ponds, streams.ûDo not apply where runoff is likely to occur. Endangeredûspecies considerations: Before undertaking any controlûoperations with this product, consult with local, State, andûFederal wildlife authorities to ensure the use of this productûpresents no hazard to any endangered species. USE RESTRICTIONS:ûDO NOT apply bait(s) in areas where there is danger ofûconsumption by endangered species. When baiting is completed,ûremove all unconsumed bait ... Carcasses of dead or dying birdsûthat are found should be collected and either burned or buriedûaccording to applicable laws. When controlling blackbirds,ûcowbirds, and grackles it may be necessary to obtain aûkill-permit from the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service and/or theûapplicable state wildlife agency. Disposal: Improper disposalûof excess pesticide, spilled bait, or rinsate is a violation ofûFederal law.ûûMaximum Application Frequency: GRAIN 98% CONCENTRATE: Feedlots:ûonce/year/site; Structures: twice per site; Staging areas:ûtwice/year/site. EGG/MEAT BAIT: twice/year/site. COMMERCIALû0.1% STARLICIDE: maximum of 3 days.ûûQuantity of DRC-1339 shipped from 1988 through 1991 increasedû3.6 fold (47 to 171 pounds).ûThe above information is from:ûUSDA ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL PROGRAM, FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTûSTATEMENT, 1994.
 EDIT ADC: Fumigants in burrows/densDenning is the practice of locating coyote (and fox) dens andûdestroying the pups by fumigation of the den with the gasûcartridge. The gas cartridge is registered as a fumigant by theûEPA (EPA Reg. No. 56228-2) and is comprised of 35% charcoal andû65% sodium nitrate. The cartridges are placed in the activeûburrows, the fuse is lit, and the entrance is then tightlyûsealed with soil. When ignited, the cartridge burns in the denûof an animal and produces large amounts of carbon monoxide, aûcolorless, tasteless gas, which kills animals in the den byûoxygen depletion and carbon monoxide poisoning. Aluminumûphosphide tablets are also used as a fumigant in prairie dogûtowns. (Predator Damage Management in the Albuquerque ADCûDistrict in Northern NM. Environmental Assessment;ûPre-Decision, 1997; and USDA, Animal Damage Control Program,ûFinal EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Sodium Cyanide M-44M-44s are a spring activated ejector devices that discharge aûpacket of sodium cyanide into the mouth of animals pulling onûthe bait (designed specifically to kill coyotes and otherûcanine predators). The device consists of a capsule holderûwrapped with fur, cloth, or wool; a capsule containing 0.8 gramûof powdered sodium cyanide; an ejector mechanism; and a 5- toû7-inch hollow stake. The hollow stake is driven into theûground, the ejector unit is cocked and placed in the stake, andûthe capsule holder containing the cyanide capsule is screwedûonto the ejector unit. A piece of bait is spread on the capsuleûholder. When the M-44 is pulled, a spring-activated plungerûpropels sodium cyanide into the animal's mouth (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûM-44s are used for certain types of preventive and correctiveûPDM involving wild canid predators. Sodium cyanide is odorlessûwhen completely dry, but emits an odor when dampened, isûstrongly alkaline, and rapidly decomposes in the environment.ûSodium cyanide is freely soluble in water and is a fast actingûnonspecific toxicant inhibiting cellular respiration (PredatorûDamage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in NorthernûNM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: 1080 LP CollarsAbout the chemical: Sodium monofluoroacetate, also known asû1080 or Compound 1080, belongs to the class of chemicals knownûas fluoroacetates. It is a tasteless, odorless, water-solubleûpoison of extraordinary potency that has been used widelyûagainst rodents and other mammalian pests. There is noûeffective antidote for this chemical. The widespread use ofû1080 in pest control has caused accidental deaths of livestock,ûwildlife, pets(cats and dogs) and humans. 1080 affect variousûspecies of wildlife too and cause primary or secondaryûpoisoning in nontarget animals. The effect of 1080 poisoning onûfishes, amphibians and reptiles are usually less than the warmûblooded animals. However, not many studies have been done onûeffects on fish. Plants which accumulated the chemical wasûtoxic by contact to eggs and larvae of large white butterflyûand to various species of aphids. At least nine groups ofûterrestrial invertebrates are adversely affected byû1080-poisoned baits, by contaminated habitats with residuesûthat leach from 1080 baits, or by consumption of animalûbyproducts and carcasses contaminated with 1080. Lethal effectsûare reported in houseflies, moths, aphids, ants, bees and mitesûthat ate 1080-poisoned baits and in fleas that ingestedû1080-poisoned rats. Cockroaches, collembolides, and slugs thatûate poisoned baits experienced adverse effects. Egg productionûin wasps was disrupted. In birds, signs of 1080 poisoning firstûappeared 1 to 60 hrs. after dosing, and deaths occurred 1hr. toûalmost 11 days after dosing. Turkey vultures died 4-32 hrs.ûafter 1080 dosing. They were more sensitive to the poison inûcolder temperature of 8-9deg.C than at 23-28deg.C. Someûnontarget species of birds like sparrows, blackbirds, towhees,ûhorned larks, McCown's longspurs, chestnut-collared longspurs,ûand western meadowlarks, died after eating 1080 poisoned baits.ûAvian scavengers such as vultures, condors, hawks, and ravensûprobably find poisoned food items as they search for carcasses.ûSome species of owls, including burrowing owls and barn owlsûwere comparatively susceptible to 1080. Birds with poorûreproductive potential and poor dispersal had a high risk ofûnonrecovery. Raptors are probably not at a great risk fromûconsuming coyote killed by 1080 in livestock-protectionûcollars. Golden eagles with a diet about 3 times the highestûconcentration of 1080 detected in carcasses of coyotes killedûby 1080 in livestock-protection collars survived, though someûshowed signs of 1080 intoxication, such as loss of strength andûcoordination, lethargy, and tremors. The most sensitive testedûmammal was the Texas pocket gopher with LD50 less than 0.50 mgû1080/kg. Carnivorous eutherian mammals were most sensitive toû1080 and amphibians were most resistant. Some species acquiredûtolerances to 1080 after repeated sublethal doses, and othersûaccumulated the chemical until a lethal threshold was reached.ûSublethal concentrations of 1080 may adversely affectûreproduction, growth, and behavior.ûûA paste containing petroleum jelly, soya oil, sugar, green dye,ûand 800 mg 1080/kg. remained toxic for 6-9 months to rats. Someûaqueous solution of 1080 retain their rodenticidal propertiesûfor at least 12 months, but others loose 54% of their toxicityûin within 24 days. 1080 in baits and carcasses is comparativelyûstable. Usually long and variable latent period betweenûadministration and response regardless of route ofûadministration. With a few exception the latent period rangesûfrom 30 min to 2 hrs., however death usually occurred within 24ûhrs of exposure. In some cases the animal remain comatose untilûdeath as many as 6 days after poisoning. In a study, 1080ûsolutions that were prepared in distilled water and stored atûroom temperature for 10 yrs. showed no significant breakdown;ûmoreover, solutions of 1080 prepared in stagnant algal-ladenûwater did not lose biocidal properties during 12 months. 1080ûis absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, open wounds,ûmucous membranes, and the pulmonary epithelium; it is notûreadily absorbed through skin. All tested routes of 1080ûadministration are equally toxic. The interval between 1080 andûdosage and signs of intoxication is at least 30 mins.,ûregardless of dose or tested species, and must be considered inûthe evaluation of the efficacy of 1080. Coyotes, for exampleûmay continue to kill livestock after a lethal dose. And coyotesûmay travel some distance from their prey prior toûincapacitation, making carcass recovery and program evaluationûdifficult.ûûUses of 1080: poisoning in nontarget animals. In USA, most usesûof 1080 were canceled in 1972 partly because of the death ofûnontarget animals. Presently it is restricted to livestockûprotection collars on sheep and goats against predation byûCoyotes (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April,û1994). Here is how 1080 collars work: The Livestock ProtectionûCollar (LPC) is a method that takes advantage of the coyote'sûnormal habitat of attacking at the neck of sheep and goats. Itûconsists of two rubber pouches or reservoirs attached to Velcroûor elastic straps. The reservoirs are filled with a toxicantûsolution of sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080). When a coyoteûattacks a collared sheep or goat, it generally punctures one orûboth of the reservoirs and ingests a lethal dose of theûtoxicant. It is the most selective method ever devised forûremoving offending individual coyotes. Sodium fluoroacetate isûdiscriminatingly toxic to predators, being many times moreûlethal to them than to nontarget species. It is a white powderûsoluble in water and is very stable in solution. It causesûdeath by disrupting the Kreb's Cycle, which is the energyûproducing process for cells. (Predator Damage Management in theûAlbuquerque ADC District in Northern NM. EnvironmentalûAssessment; Pre-Decision, 1997). The LPC would not be used onûNational Forest System lands in the District because of useûrestrictions.ûûOther domestic uses of 1080 and secondary poisoning: Onlyûlicensed pest control operators can use 1080. Operators whoûhandle 1080 should wear protective clothing, including glovesûand a respirator; extreme caution is recommended at all times.ûIn USA 37 known incidents of domestic animal poisoning resultedûfrom federal use of 1080. Cats and dogs are highly susceptibleûto 1080 and may die after eating freshly poisoned rodents,ûdried carcasses, or 1080-baits or after drinking 1080-poisonedûwater. Poisoned insects may cause secondary poisoning ofûinsectivores. Accordingly, 1080 should not be used in theûvicinities of susceptible nontarget invertebrates or endangeredûinsectivores. To prevent secondary poisoning, all uneaten baitsûand carcasses of poisoned rodents should be recovered andûincinerated. Secondary poisoning of birds is documented.ûInsectivores birds that may have died after eating 1080ûpoinsoned ants in USA include acorn woodpeckers, the whiteûbreasted nuthatch and ash-throated flycatcher. However, theûmortalities of nontarget birds from 1080 poisonings may beûunder reported because many die in their nests or roosts andûare never found. High residues of 1080 are found in someûanimals like rabbits. Secondary poisoning were evident amongûcarnivores after eating 1080-poisoned mammals. Baiting ofûCalifornia ground squirrel with 1080 reduced squirrelûpopulation by 85% and it also killed individuals of Heermann'sûkangaroo rat, little pocket mouse, the desert woodrat, the deerûmouse, and the western harvest mouse. Secondary poisoning isûprobable among carrion eaters like foxes feeding on rabbits andûother herbivores poisoned with 1080 treated carrots. Groundûsquirrel control with 1080 baits caused secondary poisoning ofûdogs, cats, coyotes, bobcats, skunks and kit foxes. A studyûsuggest that 1080 is a factor in decline in the population ofûthe highly endangered and threatened population of kit foxes.ûTissues of 1080-poisoned coyote did not cause secondaryûpoisoning to Virginia opossums, striped skunks, raccoons orûbadgers. Chance of secondary poisoning is minimum afterûconsuming tissues of prairie dogs. No mink died after fed 1080ûpoisoned rabbits at 40% of the total diet if the rabbitûgastrointestinal tract had been removed from the carcass. Thisûsuggests that the secondary toxicity from 1080 is due primarilyûto consumption of the unmetabolized compound from the gut ofûprey species.ûûHistorical accounts: Fluoroacetate compounds have been isolatedûin the plants in Australia, Brazil, and Africa. Ratsbaneû(Dichapetalum toxicarium) was known to be lethal to rats,ûlivestock and humans. In 1800s they were used by Africanûnatives to poison the wells and water supplies of hostileûtribes. Between 1946 and 1949, at least 12 humans diedûaccidentally in USA from 1080 poisoning when used as aûrodenticide. There is another incident where a child got sickûfrom eating cooked meat of a squirrel which died of 1080ûpoisoning. In United States 1080 was first used in late 1940sûto control gophers, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, field mice,ûcommensal rodents and coyotes. The use of 1080 stations peakedûin early 1960s, at which time 15 to 16 thousand stations wereûplaced each winter in the western United States. The use ofû1080 as a rodenticide was disallowed in 1985 for three reasons,û1)lack of a viable antidote, 2)high acute toxicity to nontargetûmammals and birds and 3)a significant reduction in populationsûof nontarget organisms and fatalities to endangered species. InûJune 1989, technical 1080 was conditionally approved for useûonly in the livestock-protection collar. The 30-mL collar isûregistered for use by the U.S.Dept. of Agriculture and someûstates like Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, New Mexico and byûthe Rancher's Supply, Alpine, Texas. The livestock-protectionûcollar may not be used in areas known to be frequented byûendangered species of wildife, and these include variousûgeographic areas in California, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana,ûWashington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. This decision to permitûlimited use of 1080 in livestock-protection collars is nowûbeing contested by at least 14 conservation groups because ofûits alleged hazard to nontarget organisms and humans, andûbecause of availability of alternate and more successfulûmethods of coyote control.
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (grain/corn bait)Strychnine is a white, bitter-tasting toxicant that is veryûtoxic to most mammals and birds, with the exception ofûgallinaceous birds, which are relatively resistant. Strychnineûhas been used on grain baits for above ground use on fieldûrodents, pigeons, and house sparrows. However, in 1988, allûabove ground uses were temporarily canceled (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, above ground (paste) 
 EDIT ADC: Strychnine, below ground (grain bait)Strychnine is a white, bitter-tasting toxicant that is veryûtoxic to most mammals and birds, with the exception ofûgallinaceous birds, which are relatively resistant. Forûbelow-ground use in reducing pocket gopher populations,ûstrychnine is dispensed using the tractor-drawn burrow builder,ûwhich constructs an underground artificial burrow and placesûstrychnine-treated oat baits in the simulated gopher burrow.ûDuring their underground travels, the gophers intersect theûartificial burrows, consume the toxic bait, and die undergroundûThis method of application is used in both agricultural andûforest areas (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide (meat bait)Canned dog and cat food treated with zinc phosphide is used forûrat control. The odor of zinc phosphide is attractive toûrodents but repulsive to most other animals. Tarter emetic isûsometimes added to baits used to control rats. This safetyûfeature will cause most other species to regurgitate any zincûphosphide baits, they may consume. Its effectiveness for ratûcontrol is not compromised because rats are unable toûregurgitate (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).ûûSee MANAGEMENT CODE description: 4580 for further details onûzinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide (vegetables/fruit bait)Zinc phosphide is a metallic toxicant used for rat, vole,ûmuskrat, and nutria damage control. Zinc phosphide baits areûprepared with sweet potatoes, carrots, or apples for nutria andûmuskrat, and with apples, cracked corn, or oats for voleûcontrol.ûûBaits are either broadcast on the surface or placed inûunderground runways using the trail builder. Trail builders areûused to control vole damage in orchards or other ornamental orûcommercial tree plantings. Zinc phosphide-treated grain baitsûare widely used for controlling rodent damage in forests andûprairie dog damage in rangelands (USDA, Animal Damage ControlûProgram, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûûSee MANAGEMENT CODE description: 4580 for further details onûzinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide, above ground (grain bait)Zinc phosphide is a metallic toxicant used for rat, vole,ûmuskrat, and nutria damage control. Zinc phosphide baits areûprepared with sweet potatoes, carrots, or apples for nutria andûmuskrat, and with apples, cracked corn, or oats for voleûcontrol. The odor of zinc phosphide is attractive to rodentsûbut repulsive to most other animals. Tarter emetic is sometimesûadded to baits used to control rats. This safety feature willûcause most other species to regurgitate any zinc phosphideûbaits, they may consume. Its effectiveness for rat control isûnot compromised because rats are unable to regurgitate.ûBaits are either broadcast on the surface or placed inûunderground runways using the trail builder. Trail builders areûused to control vole damage in orchards or other ornamental orûcommercial tree plantings. Zinc phosphide-treated grain baitsûare widely used for controlling rodent damage in forests andûprairie dog damage in rangelands.ûûA research in an apple orchard where zinc phosphide baits wereûused indicated that the bait remain toxic for a period of overû5 months. Zinc phosphide bait for voles in apple orchards areûlikely threats to cottontails, gallinaceous birds andûgranivorous passerines. Another study showed granivorous birdsûreadily accepted zinc phosphide treated baits.ûûA study in a stream adjacent to sugarcane plantation treatedûwith zinc phosphide baits found that the contamination did notûsignificantly affect the fish or crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)ûpopulation, but the river shrimp population declined.ûûZinc phosphide claim a large number of non-target species. InûCalifornia 455 geese were apparently killed by oat coated withû1% zinc phosphide about 3 months after they were applied. InûOregon large scale application of bait treated with 1% zincûphosphide killed 3676 geese. In the same way 30 Canada geeseûwere killed on a treated Michigan golf course. In Michigan, 10ûgray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in 1 incident and 24 wildûturkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in 7 different incidents wereûkilled by zinc phosphide baits. Such baits also claimed severalûcottontails in California. Another document reports that twoûcats were found dead adjacent to a no-till corn field illegallyûtreated with 2 percent zinc phosphide.ûûA few reports are available which indicate the danger ofûconsumption of animal killed by zinc phosphide poisoning. InûMichigan, 2 red foxes died of eating mice killed with grainûbaits treated with zinc phosphide. Another report indicate thatûdogs were killed eating squirrels who died of zinc phosphideûpoisoning. Several such cases of secondary poisoning of catsûand dogs have been reported.ûûSeveral cases of zinc phosphide poisoning by treated baits orûas a secondary effect of eating animals poisoned by zincûphosphide have been reported from foreign countries. In formerûCzechoslovakia approximately 3,000 birds of Corvidae wereûkilled in 1988 after wheat fields were treated with 2.5% zincûphosphide to control voles. In Netherlands 500-1000 geese and aûnumber of ducks, partridges, and hares died from suchûapplication. In England, a colt died after consuming baitûtreated with an unknown percentage of zinc phosphide. Inûanother incident 6 of the 9 horses died due to the same cause.ûThe result of application of rice bait treated with zincûphosphide in a village in Thailand show that three dogs, nineûchickens and three ducks living in the village died as a resultûof zinc phosphide application. In an unusual case of secondaryûpoisoning, 10 chicken died after eating remains of rats killedûwith zinc phosphide in India.
 EDIT ADC: Zinc Phosphide, below ground (grain bait)See MANAGEMENT CODE : 4580 for details on zinc phosphide baits.
 EDIT ADC: Anti-coagulant (warfarin, etc.)Several anticoagulant rodenticides are used to controlûcommensal rodents and some field rodents around buildings andûother structures. Common anticoagulants include warfarin andûdiphacinone. Anticoagulants are normally classified asûmultiple-dose toxicants. For the materials to be effective,ûanimals must feed on the bait more than once. However, someûnewer formulations only require a single feeding to beûeffective. Bait for rats and mice must be continuouslyûavailable for 2 to 3 weeks for effective population control.ûAnticoagulants may be mixed with water or with dry bait, suchûas rolled oats, corn meal, cracked grains, or presented inûcombination (USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS.ûApril, 1994).
 EDIT ANIMAL DAMAGE CONTROL (ADC) Non-Chemical 
 EDIT ADC: Leghold trapsLeghold traps are used to capture animals such as the coyote,ûbobcat, fox, mink, beaver, raccoon, skunk, muskrat, nutria, andûmountain lion. These traps are the most versatile and widelyûused tool for capturing these species. They are used in bothûterrestrial and shallow aquatic environments. When placedûwithout baits in the travel lanes of target animals, legholdûtraps are known as "trail sets". More frequently, traps areûplaced as "baited sets." In some situations, a "draw station",ûsuch as a carcass or a large piece of meat, is used to attractûtarget animals. APHIS ADC program policy prohibits placement ofûtraps closer than 30 feet to the draw station (providingûprotection to scavenging birds). Traps are secured either by aûchain and stake driven into the ground or by a chain and "drag"ûwhich hangs up in brush soon after the captured animal leavesûthe trap site. In most cases, the target animal is euthanizedûby shooting.ûVarious tension devices can be used to prevent animals smallerûthan target animals from springing the trap. Effective trapûplacement also contributes to trap selectivity; however,ûlivestock and other nontarget animals may be captured. Theseûtraps usually permit the release of nontarget animals.ûPole traps are used to capture raptors (hawks and owls). Theûpoles are 5 to 10 feet high, are erected and a padded-jawûleghold trap (usually size 1 1/2) is set on the top of eachûpole. A steel wire is passed through the trap chain andûattached to the top and base of the pole to allow the trap andûbird to slide to the ground after being captured. Injury toûtarget and nontarget animals may occur. (USDA, Animal DamageûControl Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Cage / Live trapsA variety of cage traps are used in different wildlife damageûcontrol efforts. The most commonly known cage traps used in theûcurrent program are box traps. Box traps are usuallyûrectangular, made from wood or heavy gauge mesh wire. Theseûtraps are used to capture animals alive and can often be usedûwhere many lethal or more dangerous tools would be tooûhazardous. They are used to capture animals ranging in sizeûfrom mice to deer; however, large cage traps work well toûcapture bears and have shown promise for capturing mountainûlions. They are effective for capturing beaver also. Cage trapsûmust be checked frequently to ensure that captured animals areûnot subjected to extreme environmental conditions. Some animalsûfight to escape from cage traps and become injured. Large decoyûtraps are used to capture starlings, blackbirds, crows, andûravens. A few live birds are maintained in the baited trap toûattract birds of the same species and, as such act as decoysû(USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Kill trapsA number of specialized "quick-kill" traps are used in wildlifeûdamage control work. They include Conibear, snap, gopher, andûmole traps. Conibear traps are used to capture muskrat, nutria,ûand beaver. Snap traps are common household rat or mouse trapsûusually placed in buildings. Glue boards (composed of shallow,ûflat containers of an extremely sticky substance) are also usedûas an alternative to snap traps. Spring-powered harpoon trapsûare used to control damage caused by surface-tunneling moles.ûTwo variations of scissor-like traps are also used in burrowsûfor both mole and pocket gopher population control (USDA,ûAnimal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Snares, neck & legSnares are made of wire or cable are among the oldest existingûcontrol tools. They can be used effectively to catch mostûspecies but are most frequently used to capture coyotes,ûbeaver, and bears. They are either lethal or live-captureûdevices depending on how and where they are set. Snares set toûcapture an animal by the neck are usually lethal (USDA, AnimalûDamage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).ûThe animal is generally caught by the neck and stranglesûrelatively quickly. Foot snares are set for target lions andûbears and use tension devices so that lighter weight nontargetûanimals cannot generally trip them and be caught (PredatorûDamage Management in the Albuquerque ADC District in NorthernûNM. Environmental Assessment; Pre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: Aerial shootingShooting is used selectively for target species and is anûessential control method. Shooting is frequently performed inûconjunction with calling particular predators such as coyotes,ûbobcats, and fox. Shooting from aircraft, or aerial hunting, isûa commonly used coyote killing method. Aerial hunting isûspecies-selective and can be used for immediate control whereûhunting can be effective in removing offending coyotes.ûFixed-wing aircraft are useful for aerial hunting over flat andûgently rolling terrain. Helicopters are used over timberedûareas and broken land where animals are more difficult to spotû(USDA, Animal Damage Control Program, Final EIS. April, 1994).
 EDIT ADC: Ground shootingGround shooting is selective for target species and may be usedûin conjunction with the use of spotlights, decoy dogs, andûpredator calling (Predator Damage Management in the AlbuquerqueûADC District in Northern NM. Environmental Assessment;ûPre-Decision, 1997).
 EDIT ADC: Flooding burrows 
 EDIT CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Chemical; Pesticides & organic chem.; general 
 EDIT Chemical; Herbicides, general 
 EDIT Chemical; Insecticides, general 
 EDIT Chemical; Inorganic, general 
 EDIT Chemical; radioactive materials 
 EDIT Chemical; heavy metals 
 EDIT Chemical; Antimycin 
 EDIT Chemical; Bacillus thuringensis (BT, bacteria) 
 EDIT Chemical; Copper (CHR under dev.'95) 
 EDIT Chemical; Freon (CFC) 
 EDIT Chemical; Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) 
 EDIT Chemical; Petroleum liquids (oils, fuels, etc.) 
 EDIT Chemical; Rotenone 
 EDIT Chemical; Round-up/Rodeo 
 EDIT Chemical; Sodium Chloride (e.g., road salt) 
 EDIT Chemical; Solar Radiation 
 EDIT Chemical; Strychnine 
 EDIT Chemical; Tebuthiron (herbicide) 
 EDIT Chemical; See USFWS Contaminant Hazard Review (CHR#)The genus or species is mentioned in the US Fish & WildlifeûService, US Department of the Interior, Contaminant HazardûReview Series, published by Patuxent Wildlife Research Center,ûUSFWS, information about the effect on the species.
 EDIT Chemical; Mirex (CHR #1) 
 EDIT Chemical; Cadmium (CHR #2) 
 EDIT Chemical; Carbofuran (CHR #3) 
 EDIT Chemical; Toxaphene (CHR #4) 
 EDIT Chemical; Selenium (CHR #5) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chromium (CHR #6) 
 EDIT Chemical; Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB, DDT; CHR #7) 
 EDIT Chemical; Dioxins (CHR #8) 
 EDIT Chemical; Diazinon (CHR #9) 
 EDIT Chemical; Mercury (CHR #10) 
 EDIT Chemical; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH; CHR #11) 
 EDIT Chemical; Arsenic (CHR #12) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chlorpyrifos (CHR #13) 
 EDIT Chemical; Lead (CHR #14) 
 EDIT Chemical; Tin (CHR #15) 
 EDIT Chemical; Pentachlorophenol (pcp/PENTA; CHR #17) 
 EDIT Chemical; Atrazine (CHR #18) 
 EDIT Chemical; Molybdenum (CHR #19) 
 EDIT Chemical; Boron (CHR #20) 
 EDIT Chemical; Chlordane (CHR #21) 
 EDIT Chemical; Paraquat (CHR #22) 
 EDIT Chemical; Cyanide (CHR #23) 
 EDIT Chemical; Fenvalerate (CHR #24) 
 EDIT Chemical; Diflubenzuron (CHR #25) 
 EDIT Chemical; Zinc (CHR #26) 
 EDIT Chemical; Famphur (CHR #27) 
 EDIT Chemical; Acrolein (CHR #28) 
 EDIT Chemical; Radiation (CHR #29) 
 EDIT Chemical; Sodium Monofluoroacetate (10-80; CHR #30) 
 EDIT Chemical; Planar PCB's (CHR #31) 
 EDIT Chemical; Silver (CHR #32) 
 EDIT TRANSPORTATION, UTILITIES & STRUCTURESGeneral heading including bridges, pipelines, power andûtelephone lines, towers, trenches, structures (e.g.,ûbuildings), etc.
 EDIT Bridges; general 
 EDIT Bridges; to create bat habitat 
 EDIT Bridges; in-stream piers 
 EDIT Pipelines; general 
 EDIT Pipelines; underground (vs. above grnd.) 
 EDIT Pipelines; aboveground (vs. undergrnd) 
 EDIT Overhead Wires/Poles: power/telephone/etc:generalIncludes above ground wires such as power, telephone andûtelegraph lines, antennae wires,etc. and associated supportûstructures such as poles towers, etc.; excludes wire fences.ûAdverse affect on wildlife may be from collision,ûelectro-magnetic fields, behavioral changes, habitatûfrgmentation, etc. Beneficial affects may be as nest and roostûsites, hunting perches, etc.
 EDIT Power-lines/Transformers; electrocutionTaxa at risk from electrocution ny power-lines andûtransformers.
 EDIT Overhead wires; collisionsTaxa considered at risk from collision with overhead wires suchûas high and low voltage power lines,, telephones, telegraphûlines, antennae wires, support cables, etc;excluding wireûfences.
 EDIT TowersIncludes guyed and unguyed towers for communications, fireûlookouts, light beacons, tall smoke/exhaust stacks, tallûbuildings, etc. Risk to wildlife is generally from collisionûduring flight (birds and bats). Beneficial may be as nestûsupports, roosting, hunting perches, etc.
 EDIT Wind turbines/generatorsTaxa at risk from wind generators and wind turbine facilities.
 EDIT Lighted StucturesIncludes lighted structures such as buildings, light poles,ûetc. Impacts to wildlife may be attraction and collision,ûattraction and predation, etc. Beneficialmay be concentrationûof prey, etc.
 EDIT WindowsImpacts to wildlife are generally from collision.
 EDIT Trenches/cattle guards/pitfallsIncludes surfacee structures with vertical walls wich functionûas pitfall traps such as trenches, pits, box type cattle gaurdsûwithout escape ramps, vertical mine shafts, etc.
 EDIT Aircraft; low flying; disturbance 
 EDIT Aircraft; collisions 
 EDIT Aircraft; sonic booms 
 EDIT Aircraft/missiles; high over-pressure 
 EDIT Railroad traffic; disturbance 
 EDIT INDUSTRIAL 
 EDIT MINING; general 
 EDIT Mining; general surface mining 
 EDIT Mining; general underground mining 
 EDIT Mining; sand & gravel 
 EDIT Mining activity 
 EDIT Mining; dust 
 EDIT Mining; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT Mining; exploration 
 EDIT Mining; instream operations; SEE AQUATIC MGT 
 EDIT Mining; surface rock from talus slope 
 EDIT Mining; surface rock picked up on ground 
 EDIT Mining; explosions; SEE GEN MGT 
 EDIT Mine de-watering; lower water table 
 EDIT Mine de-watering; out-put to surface water 
 EDIT Mine output; sediment to surface water 
 EDIT Mine output; acidic drainage output 
 EDIT Mine output; heavy metals; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Mine output; uranium, SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Mine practice; Cyanide Leaching; SEE CHEMICALSCyanide leaching operations where surface water containingûcyanide is available to wildlife. Does not includeûcontamination of ground water by cyanide.
 EDIT Mine reclam.; retain highwall 
 EDIT Mine reclam.; approximate original contours 
 EDIT Mine reclam.; recommend reveg species; SEE COMMENTS 
 EDIT Mine closure; leave open shafts (vert.) 
 EDIT Mine closure; leave open adits (horiz.) 
 EDIT Mine closure; install bat grates 
 EDIT Oil & gas; sump/pits + water + toxinsAny pit, sump or pond containing water and toxic substances.ûToxic substances may be in solution, suspension, or surface.ûAlso includes petroleum products on surface.
 EDIT Oil & gas; SEE CHEMICALS 
 EDIT Oil & gas; heater-treater units 
 EDIT Oil & gas; seismic activity 
 EDIT Oil & gas; increase hunting & poaching 
 EDIT MISCELLANEOUS 
 EDIT Down-hill ski areas 
 EDIT CLIMATE CHANGEIncludes one or more of multiple effects from global climate change on species and ecosystems that have management implications for biodiversity conservation, as defined by: Mawdsley, J. R., R. O'Malley, and D. S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23:1080-1089. Effects may include changes in distribution, phenology, timing of co-evolved events, demographic rates, population sizes, isolated population persistence, quantity of available habitat, diseases, competitors, or invasive species.
 EDIT Climate change: distribution shiftsShifts in species distributions, often along elevational gradients
 EDIT Climate change: phenology changesChanges in the timing of life-history events, or phenology, for particular species
 EDIT Climate change: altered timing of co-evolved eventsChanges in timing of biological events, which may lead to mismatching or decoupling of coevolved interactions, such as plant–pollinator relationships
 EDIT Climate change: demographic rate changesEffects on demographic rates, such as survival and fecundity
 EDIT Climate change: sensitive/isolated population persistenceReductions or increases in population size (especially for boreal or montane species), including extinction or extirpation of range-restricted or isolated species and populations, by stochastic or other events
 EDIT Climate change: quantity of available habitatDirect loss or gain of habitat due to sea-level rise, increased fire frequency, bark beetle outbreaks, altered weather patterns, glacial recession, and direct warming of habitats (such as mountain streams)
 EDIT Climate change: spread of diseasesIncreased or decreased spread of wildlife diseases, parasites, and zoonoses (including Lyme borreliosis and plague)
 EDIT Climate change: modified competitive interactionsIncreased or decreased populations of species that are direct competitors of focal species for conservation efforts
 EDIT Climate change: species invasionsIncreased or decreased spread of invasive or non-native species, including plants, animals, and pathogens
 EDIT Climate change: extreme eventsDrought, increased fire, heat waves, floods, etc.
 EDIT Veg Mgt; biocontrol of invasive speciesBiocontrol agents can be used to remove invasive plant species. For example, tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.) has been used to defoliate exotic saltcedar or tamarisk (Tamarix spp.).
 EDIT Wildl Mgt; illegal take/over collectionSpecies is either being collected without a license or permit, or over collected.


Related Code Table