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Code Table List

Life History Codes

 EDIT  Origin: Native to NM.
 EDIT Taxa are native to New Mexico but their distribution within the state may have been altered by human activities resulting in introduction of some populations in areas where the species did not historically occur. This includes populations that were established for conservation of native species to prevent their extirpation from the state, and some cases of where introduced populations later became extirpated. The result is a distribution of a species native to New Mexico that includes or included both native and introduced populations. Origin: Native to NM, distribution altered by human activities
 EDIT This taxa is native to New Mexico. Some or all of its populations may have been created by re-establishment. Some of the populations may also have created via introductions.Origin: Native, re-established
 EDIT This species/subspecies described within the account is native to New Mexico; However, this population (or subspecies) has been introduced to this portion of New Mexico, where it did not originally occur.Origin: Native, introduced population/subspecies
 EDIT  Origin: Introduced into NM
 EDIT  Origin: Introduced into AZ
 EDIT  Origin: Native to AZ
 EDIT  Origin: Introduced feral
 EDIT  Origin: Hybrid
 EDIT  Origin: Stocked
 EDIT  Origin: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Senses: Sight - Keen
 EDIT  Senses: Sight - Poor
 EDIT  Senses: Hearing - Keen
 EDIT  Senses: Hearing - Poor
 EDIT  Senses: Olfactory - Keen
 EDIT  Senses: Olfactory - Poor
 EDIT  Senses: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Sensitivity: Light (photosensitive)
 EDIT  Sensitivity: Temperature
 EDIT  Sensitivity: Humidity
 EDIT  Sensitivity: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Defense: Hide - Underground burrow / den
 EDIT  Defense: Hide - Cover (Vegetative/Rock)
 EDIT  Defense: Hide - Camouflage (Cryptic coloration)
 EDIT  Defense: Hide - Subnivean (under snow)
 EDIT  Defense: Flee/Escape (Fly, jump, climb, run, etc.)
 EDIT  Defense: Freeze - Stop movement
 EDIT  Defense: Fight - Teeth/Beak
 EDIT  Defense: Fight - Claws/Hooves
 EDIT  Defense: Fight - Horns/Antlers
 EDIT  Defense: Mechanical - Quills, spines, shell, thorns, etc.
 EDIT  Defense: Chemical - Distasteful if eaten
 EDIT  Defense: Chemical - Poisonous if eaten
 EDIT  Defense: Chemical - Bad odor/chemical spray
 EDIT  Defense: Chemical - Venomous sting or bite
 EDIT  Defense: Mimicry/Mullerian; both are armed or disagreeable
 EDIT  Defense: Mimicry/Batesian; harmless resembles harmful
 EDIT  Defense: Detachable parts (tail, etc.)
 EDIT  Defense: Noise, alarm call
 EDIT  Defense: Threat display/Bluff charge
 EDIT  Defense: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: Spring
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: Summer
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: Fall
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: Winter
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: January
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: February
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: March
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: April
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: May
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: June
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: July
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: August
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: September
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: October
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: November
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: December
 EDIT  Breeding/Spawning Season: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: < 1 day
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 1-2 days (24-48 hrs.)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 3-4 days (48-96 hrs.)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 5-7 days (96-168 hrs.)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 1-2 weeks (7-14 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 3-4 weeks (15-28 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 1-2 months (29-60 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 3-4 months (61-120 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 5-6 months (121-180 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: 7-8 months (181-240 days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: > 8 months (241+ days)
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: Delayed Implantation
 EDIT  Gestation/Incubation Period: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Reproductive Patterns: Delayed Fertilization
 EDIT  Reproductive Patterns: Delayed Implantation
 EDIT  Reproductive Patterns: Delayed Development
 EDIT  Reproductive Patterns: Parthenogenic
 EDIT Possessing both male and female sexual parts.Reproductive Patterns: Hermaphroditic
 EDIT  Reproductive Patterns: Specified in Comments
 EDIT VIVIPAROUS: Pertaining to spp. in which the female produces eggs that are retained and nourished in the uterus or other part of the reproductive system until the young are mature enough to be released to the outside; birth of living young instead of eggs; the situation among mammals. OVOVIVIPAROUS: Pertaining to females that produce large, yolky shelled eggs which are retained and hatch in the oviduct, the young then being released to the outside; occurs in some insects, some snakes, sharks, and lizards.Reproduction: Viviparous/Ovoviviparous (live bearing)
 EDIT Pertaining to females that release eggs from which the young later hatch out; birds, most insects, and many aquatic invertebrates are oviparous.Reproduction: Oviparous (egg laying)
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: January
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: February
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: March
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: April
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: May
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: June
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: July
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: August
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: September
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: October
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: November
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: December
 EDIT  Birth/Hatching of young: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: none
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: < 1 day
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 1-2 days
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 3-4 days
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 5-7 days
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 1-2 weeks
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 3-4 weeks
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 1-2 months
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: 3-4 months
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: > 4 months
 EDIT  Nest/Den period: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: None
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: < 1 day
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 1-2 days
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 3-4 days
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 5-7 days
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 1-2 weeks
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 3-4 weeks
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 1-2 months
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 3-4 months
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 5-6 months
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 7-8 months
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 9-12 months
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: 1-2 years
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: > 2 years
 EDIT  Post Nest/Den parental care: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Dispersal of Young: Specified in Comments (age & month)
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 1
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 2
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 3-4
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 5-7
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 8-10
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 11-15
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 16-30
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 31-100
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 101-1000
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: 1,001-10,000
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: >10,000
 EDIT  Offspring per Reproductive Effort: Specified in comments
 EDIT every other year or every third yearReproductive Efforts per Year: less than 1
 EDIT  Reproductive Efforts per Year: 1
 EDIT  Reproductive Efforts per Year: 2
 EDIT  Reproductive Efforts per Year: 3
 EDIT  Reproductive Efforts per Year: > 3
 EDIT  Reproductive Efforts per Year: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Development of Young at Birth/Hatching: Altricial
 EDIT  Development of Young at Birth/Hatching: Precocial
 EDIT  Development of Young at Birth/Hatching: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Female
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Male
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Both parents
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Foster parents
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Relative (nest helpers)
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: No care given young
 EDIT  Parental Care of Young: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: < 1 year
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: 1-2 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: 2-3 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: 3-5 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: 5-10 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: 10-20 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: > 20 years
 EDIT  Sexual Maturity: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Monogamy (one mate)
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Polygamy (Multiple mates)
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Polyandry (1 female - many males)
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Promiscuity (Indiscriminate)
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Polygyny (1 Male - many females)
 EDIT  Mating System (Per season): Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Length of Pair Bond: Pair for life
 EDIT  Length of Pair Bond: One breeding season
 EDIT  Length of Pair Bond: One breeding attempt
 EDIT  Length of Pair Bond: No pair bond formed
 EDIT  Length of Pair Bond: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Standing Water
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Flowing Water
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Sand
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Pebbles
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Rubble
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Gravel
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Rocks
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Detritus
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Mud
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Aquatic Vegetation
 EDIT  Spawning Site: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Cavity in live tree
 EDIT Living trees with decay contain amounts of decayed wood that allow them to function as snags. Dead tops, large dead branches, broken tops, and wounded areas provided useful wildlife habitat. Reference: Bull, Evelyn L. C.G. Parks, and T.R. Torgersen. May, 1997. Trees and Logs Important to Wildlife in the Interior Columbia River Basin. USDA USFS. Pacific NW Research Station.Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Live trees with decay
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Snag
 EDIT Hollow trees are trees that have decay in the heartwood so advanced that it leaves a hollow core. Large diameter trees form hollow chambers most useful to wildlife. Hollow trees are known to be used by: Northern Flickers, Black bears, bats, American Martens, Busy-tailed Woodrats, and other small mammals as dens, roosts, nests, forage sites, and shelter. Reference: Bull, Evelyn L. C.G. Parks, and T.R. Torgersen. May, 1997. Trees and Logs Important to Wildlife in the Interior Columbia River Basin. USDA USFS. Pacific NW Research Station.Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Live, but hollow trees
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Primary cavity
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Uses pre-existing cavity
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Nest Box
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Utility pole/tower
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Fence/Post
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Exposed roots
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Under bark
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: On the ground
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Underground burrow / den
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Subnivean (under snow)
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Hole in ground/Pit
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Depression/Scrape
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Grass/Forbs
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Shrubs
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Brush piles
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Stumps
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Canopy of tree/Branch base
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Vegetative crown
 EDIT Sometimes called "witches brooms".Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Fungus brooms in trees
 EDIT This also includes Dwarf Mistletoe brooms.Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Mistletoe brooms in trees
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Floating aquatic vegetation
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Emergent aquatic vegetation
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Submergent aquatic vegetation
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Rush and cattails
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Sand
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Mud
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Pebble/Cobble
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Gravel
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Rocks
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Boulders
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Bedrock
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Underwater burrow
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Organic detritus (Aquatic)
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Bare ground (no veg)/sand beaches
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Under leaves
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Dirt bank
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Cave
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Under rocks/rock outcrops
 EDIT This includes buildings, bridges, towers, etc.Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Man-made structure
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Crevices
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Ledges / Cliffs
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Live Animal
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Freshly Dead Animal
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Animal built structure (e.g. house)
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Grasses
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Leaves
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Mud
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Hair/Feathers/Down
 EDIT  Nest Materials: No nest structure
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Sand
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Inorganic debris
 EDIT Besides hiding cover and protection, down logs provide physically complex structures where animals find stable temperatures and moisture for nesting, feeding, denning, and food storage. Reference: Bull, Evelyn L. C.G. Parks, and T.R. Torgersen. May, 1997. Trees and Logs Important to Wildlife in the Interior Columbia River Basin. USDA USFS. Pacific NW Research Station.Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Down log
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Mines
 EDIT  Birthing/Egg Laying Site: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Forbs
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Sticks
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Bark
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Rootlets
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Moss/Lichen
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Pebbles/Cobble
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Rubble
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Gravel
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Rocks
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Organic debris
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Aquatic vegetation
 EDIT  Nest Materials: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nest Dimensions/Description: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Incubation Temperature: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Den Dimensions/Description: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nest Tree Height: < 10 Ft (< 3m)
 EDIT  Nest Tree Height: 10-50 Ft (3-15m)
 EDIT  Nest Tree Height: > 50 Ft (> 15m)
 EDIT  Nest Tree Height: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: < 4 in. (< 10cm)
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: 4-8 in. (10-20cm)
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: 8.1-12 in. (20.1-30.5cm)
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: 12.1-20 in. (30.6-50.8cm)
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: > 20 in. (> 50.8cm)
 EDIT  Nest Tree DBH: Specified in Comments
 EDIT Winter torpor; seasonal reduction in metabolism concurrent reduced food supply and/or low environmental temperatures.Physiol. Response: True Hibernation
 EDIT  Physiol. Response: Aestivation - Summer torpor
 EDIT  Physiol. Response: Diurnation; partial day torpor
 EDIT Winter torpor; metabolism, heart & respiration rate not significantly reduced.Physiol. Response: False Hibernation
 EDIT For example, development of some insects is suspended when their physiological activity is very low.Physiol. Response: Diapause - Suspended development
 EDIT For example, adjustment to a new range of environmental temperatures. Such changes may occur over a period of many days or weeks.Physiol. Response: Acclimation - Adjustment to new conditions
 EDIT  Physiol. Response: Dormancy - Temporarily halted development
 EDIT  Physiol. Response: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Inactive: During cold weather
 EDIT  Inactive: During hot weather
 EDIT  Inactive: During dry weather
 EDIT  Inactive: During wet weather
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates in soil (e.g. some insects)
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates underground burrow / den
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates in caves/mines
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates under snow - Subnivean
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates in live trees
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates: Snags
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates: Under bark
 EDIT  Inactive: Hibernates/aestivates in down log
 EDIT  Inactive: January
 EDIT  Inactive: February
 EDIT  Inactive: March
 EDIT  Inactive: April
 EDIT  Inactive: May
 EDIT  Inactive: June
 EDIT  Inactive: July
 EDIT  Inactive: August
 EDIT  Inactive: September
 EDIT  Inactive: October
 EDIT  Inactive: November
 EDIT  Inactive: December
 EDIT  Inactive: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Activity Pattern: Nocturnal - Active at night
 EDIT  Activity Pattern: Diurnal - Active in day
 EDIT  Activity Pattern: Crepuscular - Active at dawn and/or dusk
 EDIT  Activity Pattern: Circadian cycle - Based on time/day-length
 EDIT NOTE: Self sustaining circannual rhythms have a period of one year.Activity Pattern: Circannual cycle - Cyclic ann. fluctuations
 EDIT  Activity Period: Most active in winter
 EDIT  Activity Period: Most active in spring
 EDIT  Activity Period: Most active in summer
 EDIT  Activity Period: Most active in fall
 EDIT  Activity Period: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Gleaning
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Probing
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Hovering
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Hawking
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Grazing
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Browsing
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Scavenging
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Stalking
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Filtering
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Flycatching
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Diving (aquatic)
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Stooping
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Ambushing
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Pouncing
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Drilling
 EDIT  Foraging Strategy: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Ground surface/Waterbody bottom
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Air
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Herbaceous vegetation
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Snags
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Stumps - Less than 6 ft.
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Shrub cover/canopy
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Understory tree canopy
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Branches of overstory trees
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Canopy of overstory trees
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Trunk of trees
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Bark
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Decayed wood in live trees
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Rocks
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: In soil
 EDIT Besides hiding cover and protection, down logs provide physically complex structures where animals find stable temperatures and moisture for nesting, feeding, denning, and food storage. Reference: Bull, Evelyn L. C.G. Parks, and T.R. Torgersen. May, 1997. Trees and Logs Important to Wildlife in the Interior Columbia River Basin. USDA USFS. Pacific NW Research Station.Foraging Sites: Down log
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Underground burrow / den
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Subnivean (under snow)
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Caves/mines
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Cliffs/Ledges
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Standing water - Littoral zone
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Standing water - Limnetic zone
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Standing water - Profundal zone
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Flowing water - riffles
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Flowing water - pools
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Flowing water - aquatic veg/weedbeds
 EDIT  Foraging Sites: Specified in comments
 EDIT  Water Needs: No free water needed
 EDIT  Water Needs: Met entirely by metabolic water
 EDIT  Water Needs: Met by dew
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need to drink more than once/day
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need to drink daily
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need to drink less than daily
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need to drink only during some seasons
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need to drink all year
 EDIT  Water Needs: Use snow to meet needs during winter
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need within 300'
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need within 300' to 1/4 mile
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need within 1/4 to 1 mile
 EDIT  Water Needs: Need within 1 - 5 miles
 EDIT  Water Needs: Water can be > 5 miles away
 EDIT  Water Needs: See Comments
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Behavior: Colonial
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Behavior: Solitary
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: On ground
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: In soil
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Undergound burrow / den
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Subnivean (under snow)
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: In shrubs
 EDIT Digs own burrowBurrow use: Primary; digs own burrow
 EDIT Uses an existing burrowBurrow use: Secondary; finds existing burrow
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Cavity in tree
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Herbaceous Vegetation
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Excavates cavity in tree
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Uses pre-existing cavity in tree
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Trees in forest
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Under Bark
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Lone trees
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Snags
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Caves/Mines
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Rocks
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Cliffs, ledges
 EDIT Besides hiding cover and protection, down logs provide physically complex structures where animals find stable temperatures and moisture for nesting, feeding, denning, and food storage. Reference: Bull, Evelyn L. C.G. Parks, and T.R. Torgersen. May, 1997. Trees and Logs Important to Wildlife in the Interior Columbia River Basin. USDA USFS. Pacific NW Research Station.Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Down log
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Wires
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Utility pole/tower
 EDIT  Perch/Rest/Roost Site: bridges/culverts
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Fences
 EDIT  Perch/Rest/Roost Site: bat/bird house
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Buildings
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Over water
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Adjacent to water
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Within 1/4 mile of water
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: > 1/4 mile to water
 EDIT  Perch/Roost/Rest Site: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Rocks
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Down log
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Ledges, cliffs
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Fences
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Wires
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Trees
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Snags
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Stumps
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Ground
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Emergent vegetation
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Floating objects e.g., logs
 EDIT  Basking Sites: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Display Site: Ground
 EDIT  Display Site: Water
 EDIT  Display Site: Air
 EDIT  Display Site: Perch
 EDIT  Display Site: Snags
 EDIT  Display Site: Cavity
 EDIT  Display Site: Lek/Arena
 EDIT  Display Site: Down log
 EDIT  Display Site: Nest
 EDIT  Display site: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Dispersion/Distribution: Random/Erratic
 EDIT  Dispersion/Distribution: Uniform
 EDIT  Dispersion/Distribution: Clumped
 EDIT  Dispersion/Distribution: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Solitary
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Pair
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Family
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Social - Schooling
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Social - Flocking
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Social - Pack
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Social - Herd
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Social - Pride
 EDIT  Grouping Tendencies: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Nesting Behavior: Colonial
 EDIT  Nesting Behavior: Rookery
 EDIT  Nesting Behavior: Solitary
 EDIT  Nesting Behavior: Parasitic
 EDIT  Nesting Behavior: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend breeding territory
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend nesting territory
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend feeding territory
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend display area
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend Harem
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend Social group
 EDIT  Territoriality: Defend Family relations
 EDIT  Territoriality: Non-territorial
 EDIT  Territoriality: Specified in comments
 EDIT  Spawning Migration: Catadromous - to sea to breed
 EDIT  Spawning Migration: Anadromous - to freshwater to breed
 EDIT  Spawning Migration: Potomadromous - moves upstream to spawn
 EDIT  Spawning Migration: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Altitude - Down in fall/Up in spring
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Altitude - Up in fall/Down in spring
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Migrates to/from the State
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Latitude - Passes through State in spring
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Latitude - Passes through State in fall
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Migrates long distances within the State
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Migrates locally
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: January
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: February
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: March
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: April
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: May
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: June
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: July
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: August
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: September
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: October
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: November
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: December
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Spring
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Summer
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Fall
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Winter
 EDIT  Seasonal Migration: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Weather
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Cold weather
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Hot weather
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Drought
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Wet weather
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Flooding
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Ice
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Heavy snow
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Habitat Destruction/Loss
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Legal Hunting/Trapping/Fishing
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Hunting, crippling
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Hunting, killed by hunting dogs
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Incidental harvest (eg: accid. trap)
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Poaching
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Legal collecting
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Illegal collecting
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Intentional direct poisoning
 EDIT An example would be: secondary poisoning via ingestion of poisoned animals.Major Mortality Factors: Incidental poisoning
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Animal Damage Control (ADC) actions
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Predation
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Starvation
 EDIT Examples include such human activities as oil spills, wars, etc.Major Mortality Factors: Accidents - related to human actions
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Road kills
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Collision w/ power lines & guy wires
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Electrocution
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Physiological stress
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Inter-specific/Intense competition
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Disease
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Parasites
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Water quality
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Water flow or depth
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Pollution
 EDIT  Major Mortality Factors: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Large, major die-offs
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Moderate
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Normally stable
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Erratic
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Cyclic
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Weather related
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Due to natural causes
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Human related
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to food supply
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to predator population
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Not related to predator population
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to mortality rates
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to reprod'n success/failure
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to water quality
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Related to water flow/depth
 EDIT  Population Fluctuations: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Territory Size: < 0.1 ac. (<4,500 sq ft) (<.04 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 0.1 - 0.25 ac. (.04 - 0.1 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 0.26 - 1 ac. (0.1 - 0.4 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 1.1 - 5 ac. (0.4 - 2.0 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 5.1 - 20.0 ac. (2.0 - 8.0 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 20.1 - 100.0 ac. (8.0 - 40.5 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 100.1 - 1000 ac. (40.5 - 404.7 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 1001 - 3200 ac. (1.5-5.0 sq mi; 405-1295 ha)
 EDIT  Territory Size: 3201-10,000 ac. (5.0-16.0 sq mi; 1295-4047ha)
 EDIT  Territory Size: > 10,000 ac. (16.0 sq. miles or 4047 ha.)
 EDIT  Territory Size: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Home Range Size: < 0.1 ac. (4,500 sq ft or 0.04 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 0.1 - 0.25 ac. (0.04 - 0.1 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 0.25 - 1 ac. (0.1 - 0.4 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 2 - 5 ac. (0.4 - 2 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 6 - 20 ac. (2 - 8 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 21 - 100 ac. (8 - 40.5 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 101 - 1000 ac. (40.5 - 404.7 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 1001 - 3200 ac. (1.5-5 sq mi; 404.7-129 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 3201 - 10,000 ac. (5-16 sq mi; 1295-4047 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: 10,001-32,000 ac (16-50sq mi; 4047-12,950 ha
 EDIT  Home Range Size: > 32,000 ac. (> 50 sq miles or 12950.4 ha)
 EDIT  Home Range Size: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: < 5 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: 5-10 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: 11-20 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: 21-35 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: 36-50 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: 51-100 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: > 100 pairs
 EDIT  Viable Population Size: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: < 0.25 ac. (.1 ha.)
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 0.25 - 1 ac (0.1 - 0.4 ha)
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 1.1 - 5 ac (0.4 - 2 ha)
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 5.1 - 30 ac (2 - 12 ha)
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 30.1 - 100 ac (12 - 40 ha)
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 100.1-1000 ac (40-404.7 ha
 EDIT 1001 - 10,000 ac is equivalent to (1.5 - 16 sq mi; or 3.9 - 41 sq km)Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 1001 - 10,000 ac
 EDIT 10,001 - 100,000 ac is equivalent to 16 - 156 sq mi; or 41 - 404 sq km)Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: 10,001 - 100,000 ac
 EDIT 100,000 ac is equivalent to 156 sq mi or 404 sq km.Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: > 100,000 ac
 EDIT  Min. Suitable Hab. for Viable Pop: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Population Density: Specified in Comments
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Very sensitive
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Moderately sensitive
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Slightly sensitive
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Not sensitive
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in January
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in February
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in March
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in April
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in May
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in June
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in July
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in August
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in September
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in October
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in November
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: Sensitive in December
 EDIT  Human Disturbance: See Comments