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Arizona Toad
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Booklet data last updated on 7/31/2017
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-  Taxonomy   (section updated on 11/15/2012)  Back to top
Species ID 020120
Name Arizona Toad
Other Common Names Southwestern toad (species)
Category 02 Amphibians
Elcode AAABB01110
BLM Code ANMI
Phylum Chordata
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Amphibia
Subclass Lissamphibia
Order Anura
SubOrder Neobatrachia
Family Bufonidae
Genus Anaxyrus
Species microscaphus
Subspecies microscaphus
Authority (Cope, 1866)
Scientific Name Anaxyrus microscaphus
Account Type This account represents a full species account with only one subspecies recognized in BISON-M.
Taxonomic References 01, 02, 03, 07, 19, 42, 53, 61
Comments on Taxonomy
1996: The southwestern toad (Bufo microscaphus Cope, 1866) is presently recognized as 3 allopatric subspecies: B. m. californicus Camp, 1915, which occurs in coastal southern California and northwest Baja California; B. m. microscaphus Cope, 1866, found in southern Nevada and Utah, Arizonam and New Mexico; and B. m. mexicanus Brocchi, 1879, which occurs in the Sierra Madre Occidental of cnetral Mexico south to Durango (Price and Sullivan 1988) (Goldberg et al., 1996) *37*.

1998: Gergus (1998) suggested that the three subspecies of southwestern toad (Bufo microscaphus californicus, B. m. mexicanus, and B. m. microscaphus) be elevated to full species status. B. microscaphus is the species present in New Mexico *53*.

2008: The genus Anaxyrus of strictly North American toads was recently removed from a paraphyletic “Bufo” by Frost et al. (2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297). A. microscaphus formerly included A. californicus (arroyo toad) as a subspecies until A. californicus was recognized as a distinct species *42*.

NEW MEXICO Bufo microscaphus microscaphus (Cope) is the only subspecies recognized in New Mexico. *01* Arizona toad is the subspecies name for B.m. microscaphus *02*.

Bufo microscaphus often hybridizes with the southwestern Woodhouse's toad, Bufo woodhousii australis, where habitat modifications have forced the two species together (NMDGF, 1994) *22*.

ARIZONA: B.m. microscaphus is the subspecies recognized in Arizona *19*.

+  Legal Status   (section updated on 12/2/2013)  Back to top
+  Species Distribution   (section updated on 5/25/2017)  Back to top
+  Habitat Association   (section updated on 2/9/2016)  Back to top
+  Food Habits   (section updated on 3/9/2016)  Back to top
+  Environmental Associations   (section updated on 2/9/2016)  Back to top
+  Life History   (section updated on 12/2/2016)  Back to top
+  Management Practices   (section updated on 7/27/2017)  Back to top
+  References  Back to top
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